Identify Funding Needs for the Just Transition

Jakarta, 30 April 2024 – The energy transition process is entering a new phase with the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) funding which was agreed in 2022. The availability of affordable funding is a real challenge for the energy transition process. In the latest study, Identifying Finance Needs for a Just Transformation of Indonesia’s Power Sector, conducted by the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) and the New Climate Institute (NCI), underscoring Indonesia’s funding needs for the energy transition reached USD 2.4 billion.

Wira Agung Swadana, Green Economy Program Manager, IESR, emphasized that without financing, transformation will not occur. It is also important to build community resilience at the site level so that communities do not experience negative impacts from the ongoing energy transition process.

“Transitional changes need to be made in society, apart from the fact that we will not be dependent on fossil energy, but we need to see the economic transformation in the area, especially coal producing area,” said Wira.

Reena Skribbe, Climate Policy Analyst, New Climate Institute, explained that based on this released report, ending coal operations according to the JETP target scenario would have the potential to avoid health costs of USD 150 billion, and the potential to avoid premature deaths due to air pollution of up to 240 thousand people in 2050.

“There are two scenarios that we use in this study. First, the JETP scenario is in line with the JETP emission reduction target of 290 metric tons of CO2, and JETP+ is in line with the Paris Agreement target,” explained Reena.

The results of the JETP+ scenario of ending coal operations will be able to secure health costs of around USD 230 billion and avoid a total of 360 thousand premature deaths from air pollution by mid-century.

Farah Vianda, Sustainable Finance Coordinator, IESR, added that the fate of workers currently working in the mining sector needs to be considered so that they do not lose their livelihood.

“To prepare for the transition process, especially in coal-producing areas, strong government institutional capacity is needed. So, it is important to increase government capacity and establish formal institutions that focus on managing a just transition,” said Farah.

Encouraging Industrial Decarbonization Starting from Consumer Lifestyle

Jakarta, 22 March 2024 – The increase of the earth’s temperature is an inevitable phenomenon as a result of various natural events and human activities and lifestyles which produce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as the cause of the rise in the earth’s temperature.

The invention of the steam engine in 1880 made monumental changes to human life with the beginning of industrialization. The development of industry has been accompanied by increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2022 recorded an increase in earth temperature of 1.1 degrees Celsius. This is a warning for humanity to immediately take steps to control temperature rise to prevent the temperature increase from reaching no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Faricha Hidayati, Coordinator of the Industrial Decarbonization Project, Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) explained that rising earth temperatures could trigger hydrometeorological disasters, one of which will be at an increasingly high frequency.

“Apart from environmental problems, another side impact is health costs which will rise along with the increase in disease, especially those that attack vulnerable groups such as the elderly, children and poor households,” explained Faricha.

Even though it is one of the sectors causing increased GHG emissions, the industrial sector has a significant economic contribution. So strategic steps and efforts are needed to decarbonize the industrial sector.

In 2021, industrial sector emissions will be the second largest emitting sector after electricity generation. If we continue to use the business as usual scheme without any intervention, the value of emissions in the industrial sector will double by 2050.

“The industrial sector contributes to emissions of more than 300 million tons of CO2 in 2021, with the highest source of emissions from the use of fossil fuels as an energy source,” added Faricha.

Even though there are regulations that encourage industry to practice sustainable principles, their implementation is not yet mandatory. Even for industries that independently have the initiative to implement sustainable principles, there is no incentive system for them.

Faricha continued, apart from through policy advocacy to the government, consumers can contribute, one of the ways is by choosing products that are produced with sustainable principles. Consumers can also demand that producers or industries start implementing sustainable principles in their production processes.

Embarking on the Decarbonization Journey of the Steel Industry

Jakarta, 20 March 2024 – The industrial sector is one of the important sectors for reducing emissions. The large energy consumption and its significant contribution to the economy in 2022 amounting to 16.48 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), are strong reasons to make this sector more sustainable. Industries with high energy needs, such as the iron and steel industry, require strategic preparation to carry out decarbonization.

Indonesia is one of the largest steel producing countries in Southeast Asia, and ranks number 15 steel producers in the world. In 2023, Indonesia’s steel production capacity will reach 16 million tonnes and is estimated to reach 33-35 million tonnes in 2030.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), in the webinar “Accelerating the Transformation of the Steel Industry in Southeast Asia: Indonesia Chapter” stated that Indonesian steel production still has high emissions.

“Indonesia’s projected steel demand is predicted to increase. If we don’t take serious decarbonization steps, emissions from the steel industry will also continue to increase,” said Fabby.

We also face international market demands to produce lower carbon steel. For example, the European Union has implemented the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), which, effective in 2026, will have a negative effect on the exports of the Indonesian steel industry. For this reason, the steel industry needs to undergo transformation.

Farid Wijaya, Senior Analyst at IESR, explained that decarbonization for the steel industry will bring prospects for economic growth, although currently there are still quite a lot of challenges.

“Green industrial standards can be one way to encourage environmentally friendly industries. Green standards for steel have only recently been established and are still limited to sheet steel per layer. “Currently there is no steel industry that has received a green certificate due to implementation limitations,” said Farid.

Kajol, Program Manager for Climate Neutral Industry Southeast Asia, Agora Industry, added that currently almost 80% of steel production is carried out through blast furnace technology.

“We have to start thinking about better and modern technology to replace blast furnaces. “When the blast furnace facilities currently operating start to become less efficient in 2030-2040, we must replace them with more modern technology and no longer invest in blast furnaces,” she explained.

One of the technologies Kajol refers to is Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) which can produce primary steel using natural gas or clean hydrogen. Iron ore is reduced to produce DRI, which can then be melted in an electric arc furnace (EAF) to produce primary steel.

Viable strategies for decarbonizing the steel industry include direct and indirect use of renewable energy, resource efficiency and circular economy, and closing the carbon cycle.

Helenna Ariesty, Sustainability Manager of PT Gunung Raja Paksi (GRP) as an industry player emphasized the importance of regulatory certainty in encouraging industrial decarbonization.

“We face several challenges to navigate the inconsistent policy direction. Apart from that, access to funding is affordable considering the initial investment required is significant,” Helenna said.

Joseph Cordonnier, Industrial Policy Analyst, OECD agrees that policy and access to funding will be key framework components for building a supporting ecosystem for industrial decarbonization.

“As part of this framework we also have to really look at how to maximize the utilization of existing assets based on engineering variables, energy efficiency and emission reduction of these assets,” said Joseph.

Fausan Arif Darmaji, Infrastructure Development Analyst, Green Industry Center, Ministry of Industry said the government is aware of the need to reduce emissions from Indonesian steel production.

“The steel sector is also our current focus. “While we are waiting for the policy regulations that are currently being made, we are providing training on GHG calculations for the steel sector, as well as calculating the economic value of carbon,” said Fausan.

Deon Arinaldo, IESR Energy Transformation Program Manager closed this webinar by underlining the need for industrial decarbonization as an effort to remain relevant to the demands of industrial development.

“Currently decarbonization in the industrial sector is still considered a challenge. Not only in Indonesia, but also a global phenomenon. “We must anticipate this trend because decarbonization is inevitable,” said Deon.

Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Emissions are not Small

Dekarbonisasi emisi UKM

Jakarta, 14 March 2024 – The industrial sector has become the backbone of the Indonesian economy. Not only large industries, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are also the driving force of the national economy, including creating employment opportunities and contributing 60.5% to GDP.

However, this economic contribution figure is also accompanied by large, haunting emissions. Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform, in his opening remarks for the Webinar on Decarbonization Opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia and Learning from Global Experience, said that currently emissions from the SME industrial sector in 2023 are 216 million tons of CO2e.

“This figure is equivalent to one third of national industrial sector emissions. So, we need to seriously strive to decarbonize the SMEs industry because by prioritizing the sustainability aspect, SMEs will level up,” said Fabby.

As much as 95% of the SME sector’s emissions come from burning fossil fuels, the remaining 5% from burning waste. Large economic contributions need to be anticipated as a result of emissions output. If significant steps are not taken to reduce SME sector emissions, there is a possibility that SME emissions will increase in the future.

Abyan Hilmy Yafi, IESR Energy Data Analyst, explained in a survey carried out by IESR on 1000 SMEs throughout Indonesia that to start decarbonizing the SME industry there are several approaches from increasing understanding to technical solutions such as switching technology.

“For cross-sectors, there is a need to increase the understanding of SMEs about energy consumption and the emissions they emit. Active outreach is also needed to promote renewable energy. By sectoral approach, there are several technical recommendations such as the use of electric boilers in the textile and apparel industry,” he explained.

Bo Shen, Energy Environmental Policy Research, LBNL explained that globally, challenges to decarbonizing the SME industry include gaps in the knowledge of SME owners or managers regarding emissions, energy, or furthermore climate change and its relevance to their business.

“When SMEs already have sufficient knowledge and awareness to carry out decarbonization or reduce emissions from their business, finance becomes the next obstacle. The current upfront costs for, for example, looking for technology vendors or energy service providers (Energy Service Company – ESCO), are still quite high for the financial scale of SMEs,” explained Bo Shen.

Each country will use a different approach to encourage the decarbonization of their SMEs. In the United States, for example, governments are collaborating with universities to build industrial assessment centers.

“Apart from being useful for decarbonizing the SMEs industry, this approach also prepares skilled workers who have direct training opportunities in the SME industry,” explained Bo Shen.

Bo also added an interesting case from China which formed an initiative called Green Growth Together (GGT). This initiative encourages decarbonization of SMEs that are part of established product supply chains.

The established brands they supply require their entire supply chain network to implement emission reduction or decarbonization practices. This demand also comes with required financial assistance or technical assistance.

Ahmad Taufik from the Green Industry Center of the Ministry of Industry (Kemenperin) stated that Indonesian is currently experiencing challenges in the industrial sector. The contribution of the industrial sector to GDP continues to decline.

“Structurally, we are still continuing to improve various things, from industrial development, SME development, to ensuring the availability of environmentally friendly jobs (green jobs) and professional staff (green professionals),” said Taufik.

Navigating Water Illuminates the Plains of Sriwijaya

Palembang, February 27, 2024 – The Jelajah Energi South Sumatra group was welcomed by the thunderous sound of the fast-flowing Endikat River and the cloudy weather upon their arrival at Muara Endikat, also known as the mouth of the Cawang River, in Singapore Village, Kota Agung District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. This region is known for its breathtaking natural beauty and has significant potential to provide electrical energy for the local population.

Located about a 1 to 1.5-hour drive away from Pagar Alam City, the Jelajah Energi South Sumatra group reached PLTMH Green Lahat. This Mini Hydro Power Plant (MHP) has been operational since 2015 and has an electrical energy production capacity of 3×3.3 Megawatts (MW), making its total capacity 9.9 MW.

“7 MW of the total energy produced is allocated to meet the electricity needs of Pagar Alam City, while the remaining 30% is distributed to Lahat Regency,” said Kastiono, plant manager of Green Lahat MHP. 

Next to MHP Green Lahat, MHP Endikat (both under the parent company PT Manggala Gita Karya) has also been built with a 3 x 2.67 MW capacity, which will be operational in 2022. The two independent power producers (IPPs) utilize the flow of the Endikat River to produce electrical energy that is sold to PLN and used later by the community.

Kastiono explained that before the construction of the MHP, the residents residing around the power plant in Pagar Alam City and Lahat Regency used to experience a drop in electricity voltage. The poor quality of electricity was influenced by various factors, including the power plant’s location being too far from the substation, which led to unstable voltage. Additionally, Kastiono admits that the electricity production from MHP Green Lahat depends on the conditions around the river upstream.

“The most crucial aspect is the greening of the upstream. Everything must be controlled, and there should be no illegal logging. However, the responsibility of maintaining forest cover in the watershed also involves other agencies,” he said.

Rizqi Mahfud Prasetyo, Project Coordinator of Sub National, Sustainable Energy Access, IESR mentioned that according to IESR’s study, Indonesia has 27.8 GW of MHP/MH potential, of which 287.7 MW is located in South Sumatra. 

“In addition to increasing the renewable energy mix in PLN’s electricity. MHP can improve the quality of energy access for people who may not have been reached by the PLN network,” Rizqi said.

Rizqi also added that the geography and topography of some of Indonesia’s contoured areas allow for the existence of river flows and river drops. River flow has the potential to be utilized as a power plant, one of which is in PLTM Green Lahat which utilizes the Endikat river flow.

The presence of MHP Green Lahat and MHP Endikat instills a sense of hope in the communities of South Sumatra by providing dependable electrical energy and bolstering the infrastructure and local economy. These micro-hydro power plants are expected to continue to offer sustainable benefits to the community and the environment in the long run.

Encouraging the Energy Transition in the Industrial Sector in South Sumatra

Jelajah Energi Sumatera Selatan

Palembang, 26 February 2024 – Energy is a basic need for individuals and communities with various purposes. Even though energy is something crucial in human life, not many people know or are critical of the energy sources (such as electricity) that they use every day.

On a larger scale such as the industrial sector, energy needs will be directly proportional to the productivity and economic contribution of the products produced. Somewhat different from energy use on a household scale, energy use in the industrial sector is relatively well monitored. In terms of awareness of energy sources, industry tends to better understand the energy sources they choose.

In an effort to promote the use of renewable energy, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) collaborates with the South Sumatra Province Energy and Mineral Resources Office to organize the South Sumatra Energy Exploration (Jelajah Energi Sumatera Selatan) activity for one week starting from Monday, February 26th, 2024 to Friday March 1st, 2024. This activity also embraces journalists as strategic partners in increasing public literacy regarding the energy transition.

The series of events began with an introductory workshop to provide participants with a basic understanding of energy and the energy landscape of South Sumatra, which acts as an “energy barn”. However, the dominant energy used is fossil energy i.e coal. Meanwhile, apart from fossil energy sources, South Sumatra Province also has a technical potential for renewable energy reaching 21,032 MW, yet only around 4.7% or 989 MW has been utilized.

Rizqi M. Prasetyo, IESR Sub-National Project Coordinator, explained that with the renewable energy potential of South Sumatra, projects can be utilized to bring benefits to the community.

“One of the (good practices, ed) that has been carried out in South Sumatra is the CSR initiative to use solar PV to drive land irrigation water pumps,” said Risky.

Secretary of the South Sumatra Province ESDM Service, Ahmad Gufran, said that his party was open to various ideas for greater use of renewable energy.

“We will continue to contribute to the development of the renewable energy sector to obtain clean, environmentally friendly energy. In the future, we hope that the use of clean energy can expand to all levels of society,” said Ahmad Gufan.

After receiving a general introductory workshop, the Energy Exploration journey began by visiting PT Pupuk Sriwidjaja (PUSRI). PT PUSRI is the first fertilizer producer in Indonesia and has been operating since the 1970s. Considering that the company’s operational period is quite long, production assets have also entered a period of revitalization. This moment is also used to switch to a cleaner type of technology for future operational periods.

VP of Environment at PUSRI Palembang, Yusuf Riza, explained that in an effort to be in line with the government’s agenda to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, PT PUSRI is taking a number of steps, including implementing energy efficiency practices, using electric vehicles as operational vehicles in factory environments, and installing on-grid rooftop PV for office operations.

“Currently we have installed a rooftop PV of 110 kWp as an energy source in office buildings, and this year (2024, ed) we plan to increase our (PV) capacity by 100 kWp. So in total we will have around 210 kWp PV capacity,” said Yusuf.

When Geothermal Energy Illuminates the Land of Sriwijaya

Palembang, February 29, 2024On Thursday morning, the Jelajah Energi South Sumatra group arrived at the Geothermal Power Plant (PLTP) in Lumut Balai, Muara Enim, South Sumatra, owned by PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy Tbk (PGE), after a long and winding journey that took about 4 hours from Muara Enim City. The group was welcomed with cold weather due to the plant’s location on a hill. Despite challenging geographical conditions, PLTP Lumut Balai Unit I, located at least 2,055 meters above sea level, has become a silent witness to the wonders of geothermal energy.

Acting General Manager of PT Pertamina Geothermal Energy Tbk (PGE) Lumut Balai Area, Aris Kurniawan, explained that the company is committed to providing reliable, affordable, clean energy access to all Indonesian people. The Lumut Balai Unit 1 PLTP, which has an installed capacity of 55 MW, has been supplying electricity to around 55,000 homes in the PGE working area since 2019. Moreover, it has helped reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 300,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).

“The Lumut Balai geothermal plant continues to move forward. By 2024, the target is to complete the construction of unit 2 of the Lumut Balai PLTP and proceed to the commissioning stage. Unit 2 has entered the EPCC (engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning) stage for the plant’s construction. In December 2024, it is expected to enter the commissioning phase until commercial operation (commercial on date). The project is still on track,” said Aris.

Aris stated that the Lumut Balai geothermal power plant is located in the Lumut Balai and Margabayur geothermal working areas (WKP), South Sumatra, with a mapped potential of 270 MW. With the development of the LMB Unit-2 Project, the installed capacity for the Lumut Balai Area will increase to 110 MW, equivalent to lighting 110,000 homes.

“Through our projects in Lumut Balai, we aim to mitigate climate change risks and support Indonesia in achieving 23% of the national grid mix from renewable energy sources by 2025. With a focus on innovation and efficiency, PGE is committed to reducing carbon emissions even further in the future to support Indonesia Net Zero Emission 2060,” said Aris.

Aris highlighted that, alongside the success of the energy transition through the optimization of geothermal development as a green energy source, PGE is also prepared to contribute to the carbon exchange initiative. This initiative serves as a tool that can encourage effective emission reductions and incentivize companies to participate in efforts to mitigate climate change.

“As of September 2023, PGE has contributed to the domestic carbon market by issuing 864,209 tons of CO2 equivalent (CO2eq), and this is the first geothermal carbon project on the carbon exchange,” Aris said.

Faricha Hidayati, Coordinator of the Industrial Decarbonization Project, Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) stated that among the geothermal working areas (WKP) established by the government, WKP Lumut Balai is one of the leading ones because it has geothermal potential of more than 300 MW, of which 55 MW has been operating since 2019 and other units are under construction and will be completed in December 2024. If this geothermal potential is properly utilized, Indonesia will be able to have 23.7 GW of clean energy and achieve net zero emissions by 2060, or sooner.

“Unfortunately, not many people are aware of this abundant potential, and many still choose energy from fossil fuels. Therefore, IESR in collaboration with the Energy and Mineral Resources Agency of South Sumatra held this Energy Tour to disseminate this information to the public. Hopefully, the Indonesian people will become wiser in using electricity and the like, and can then jointly oversee government policies in encouraging Indonesia’s energy transition to become greener and more sustainable,” Faricha explained.

Exploring Renewable Energy Utilization in the Land of Sriwijaya

Palembang, February 27, 2024 – The Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) and the Energy and Mineral Resources Agency (ESDM) of South Sumatra Province jointly organized an event called Jelajah Energi to explore the potential and implementation of renewable energy in the South Sumatra region. The event was held from Monday, February 26, to March 1, 2024. On the second day of Jelajah Energi, the team visited Jakabaring to observe the utilization of solar energy and PT Buyung Poetra Energi to witness the use of biomass.

Solar PV Jakabaring is a project established through a partnership between Indonesia and Japan under the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM)—the project aimed to fulfill the electricity requirements during the 2018 Asian Games. The total investment value for the project was USD 139 million, with most of the funds coming from private Indonesian investment and subsidies from the Japanese Government.

Ali Kartiri, the Operations Manager of PT Sumsel Energi Gemilang, is responsible for overseeing the Jakabaring solar power plant. According to Kartiri, the South Sumatra Provincial Government took the initiative to build this solar power plant. In collaboration with Sharp Japan, the project secured subsidies from the Japanese Government. These subsidies were primarily allocated for funding technology and infrastructure that supports greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets.

“The Solar PV Jakabaring has a peak electrical energy production capacity of up to 2 Megawatts (MW) when the sunlight is optimal. However, during the rainy season, the plant’s productivity is sometimes affected, and it can only absorb about 10% of the solar energy. The plant has been successfully operational since 2018 and integrated into the PLN grid, contributing renewable energy to the local community.,” Ali said.

Meanwhile, The Jelajah Energi team recently visited PT Buyung Poetra Energi (BPE), a company that established a biomass power plant (PLTBm) to preserve the environment. The plant uses rice husks as fuel to generate electricity, which was previously considered waste. Candra Priansyah, the Operations Supervisor of PT BPE, explained how this approach has turned an environmental problem into a valuable energy source.

“Waste produced during rice milling in the form of husks will be burned in a boiler to generate steam. This steam will then be transferred to a steam turbine that will power a generator. The power plant requires 4 tons of husks per hour and has a capacity of 3 MW. However, not all the chaff produced is used for the power plant. Only about 70% of the available supply is used for generating power, while the remaining 30% is used for heating and drying rice grains,” Candra said.

Candra said that all chaff waste produced by PT BPE is being utilized environmentally friendly, and none of it is being disposed of into the environment. Moreover, the electricity generated from this PLTBm is sufficient to meet the company’s operational requirements. Candra hopes this power plant can help reduce the amount of rice husk waste, particularly from factories in South Sumatra where rice husks have been thrown away or simply burned. Candra’s team has even developed a machine to compress rice husk by-products into pellets at the Subang Factory located in West Java. These pellets are then sold to cement factories as fuel.

 

During the visit, it was evident that South Sumatra is dedicated to developing renewable energy sources to tackle global environmental challenges. South Sumatra is making significant progress towards a more sustainable and eco-friendly future by working with the public and private sectors and receiving support from foreign governments.

Spreading the Issue of Energy Transitions Through Journalistic

Palembang, 20 February 2024 – Indonesia increased its commitment of achieving the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2030 to 31.89% (unconditional) and 43.20% (conditional). The government has also issued Presidential Regulation No. 112 of 2022 concerning the Acceleration of Renewable Energy Development for Electric Power Supply Supports the Acceleration of Domestic Energy Transitions. Various government programs hopefully will help Indonesia to achieve the Net Zero Emission (NZE) target in 2060 or faster.

The media plays an important role in guarding the issue of climate change, including energy transition policies from the government. The media also played a role in building public support while providing education about the issue of energy transition. Through informative and weighty coverage, the media can help form public opinion, motivate actions, and support steps towards a more sustainable energy system.

In this regard, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) with the Palembang Independent Journalist Alliance (AJI) and the Indonesian Environmental Journalist Community (SIEJ) South Sumatra held a network of South Sumatra journalists with the theme “Spreading the Issue of Energy Transitions Through Journalistic” on February 20, 2024, in Palembang. In the event which was attended by 39 journalists from various print and online media in South Sumatra, the speakers from the South Sumatra Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) Office, Sriwijaya University, and IESR took turns giving presentations.

Head of Energy Division from the South Sumatra ESDM Office Dr. Aryansyah explained that the realization of the South Sumatra renewable energy mix in 2022 had reached 23.85% or two percent higher than the 2025 target listed in RUED Province. Nevertheless, the utilization of renewable energy has only reached 989.12 MW or 4.7% of the total solar, hydro, wind, bioenergy, and geothermal energy potential of 21,032 MW.

“There are several strategies for implementing regional level energy management in South Sumatra. For example with the issuance of South Sumatra Governor Regulation Number 26 of 2021 concerning the use of battery-based electricity vehicles to support the acceleration of electric motor vehicle programs. As an implementation of the regulation, on April 25, 2022 the South Sumatra ESDM Office had an electric car unit. Another example, we are also conducting a study of potential biomass based on cow dung in Musi Banyuasin Regency, “said Aryansyah.

Lecturer in the Faculty of Economics, Sriwijaya University, Dr. Abdul Bashir explained that from an economic point of view, energy transitions will increase energy security and reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Energy transition can also increase economic diversification and create new sources of income that are beneficial to the surrounding community.

“In terms of policy, the government needs to set clear targets and roadmaps for energy transitions. Regulations that support the development of EBT, such as fiscal incentives and facilitate the licensing process can also be considered. The media needs to oversee this issue by providing education about the transition of energy, EBT, and its impact on the community. Conversely, the media can also voice the aspirations and concerns of the community about energy transitions, “said Abdul Bashir.

The IESR Communication Team Kurniawati Hasjanah stated that the mass media was still the main source of information for readers who wanted to explore the issue of energy transitions, followed by research, academic webinars, then influencers on social media. Interestingly, the focus of the news is still dominated by the point of view delivered by the government and business people.

“In preaching the issue of energy transitions, journalists need to understand that new energy generated from technology cannot be categorized as renewable energy, such as nuclear energy, coal gasification, and coal liquidation. Journalists also need to reveal the social and economic implications of energy transitions, including in terms of employment and affected workers. Policies related to energy transitions must be participatory since the transition concerns the lives of many people, “said Kurniawati Hasjanah.