Jakarta, 14 December 2022- The global energy crisis shows the vulnerability of fossil-based energy security, including Indonesia, where 67% of the energy mix comes from fossil energy. Facing the uncertainty of social, political, economic and environmental conditions regarding national energy security, the government needs to make a sustainable and just energy transition by optimizing the use of renewable energy sources to replace fossil energy sources. This is the main discussion of the Institute Essential Services Reform (IESR) flagship report entitled Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2023.
The impact of the energy crisis can be seen in energy prices such as coal, natural gas and crude oil, which have soared 2-4 times in mid-2022 compared to 2019. It has made domestic coal producers more interested in exporting overseas, which has led to a depletion of domestic coal supplies. To overcome the problem of the energy crisis in the short term, the Indonesian government made various decisions such as maintaining the Domestic Market Obligation (DMO) policy, disbursing fossil energy subsidies which reached 650 trillion and adjusting fuel prices to reduce subsidy burdens. However, coal, oil and gas reserves are decreasing every year, and the pressure to overcome the threat of the climate crisis demands a long-term solution so that Indonesia is free from an energy crisis in the future.
“To provide affordable and safe energy, increasing renewable energy for electricity supply, transportation and industry and reducing fossil energy must be accelerated. The energy transition needs to be carried out gradually following social, economic and political conditions that affect policy direction and people’s purchasing power. However, the faster we increase the renewable energy mix, the lower the vulnerability to energy security and the cheaper energy prices in Indonesia will be. It was shown in some IESR study results. The key word is ambitious but also flexible targets,” said Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), at the Media Conference for the launch of IETO 2023.
The condition of European countries and the UK, which are currently experiencing high energy prices, is an example of using transition fuels, such as natural gas, as a wrong strategy. When there is a gas shortage, they temporarily increase fossil energy which denies global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which cause climate change due to rising earth temperatures exceeding 1.5 degrees Celsius.
IESR encourages the government to complete all homework to boost the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency quickly.
“There is still a lot of work to be done to make the energy transition truly happen and sustainable, for instance adjusting National Energy Policy (KEN) and National Energy General Plan (RUEN), phasing out coal and gas subsidies, reforming prices and electricity subsidies, accelerating the termination of coal-fired power plants, developing the domestic solar cell and module industry, adjusting the grid code, as well as integrating transportation and industrial decarbonization strategies according to the zero-emission path. The government must pursue all these reforms quickly, and the community must continue to push for the transition to occur,” explained Fabby.
IETO 2023 also highlights the high level of public awareness of the energy transition. However, in general, energy transition readiness in Indonesia is still low, although several policies, supporting regulations and renewable energy development plans have been issued, such as the enhanced NDC, RUPTL 2021-2030, which contains a 51.6% portion of renewable energy and Presidential Regulation 112/2022 concerning Acceleration Development of Renewable Energy for the Provision of Electric Power.
“Several things still need to be fixed, such as the capacity limit for installing PLTS roofs by 15%, which certainly reduces the public’s interest in utilizing this technology and contributing to the renewable energy mix on a national scale. Based on a public survey that we have conducted, more than 60% of the people we surveyed agree to accelerate the cessation of using coal as the main source in the electricity sector and support the government to start paying attention to other sources such as solar radiation, water and wind. With this huge public support, the government must begin to be able to prove its commitment to providing a cleaner source of electricity for the whole community,” said Handriyanti D Puspitarini, Main Author of IETO 2023 who is also a senior researcher at IESR.
All discussions regarding the status and analysis of the energy sector to accelerate the energy transition are summarized in the Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2023. Published in 2017 with the Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook (ICEO), which later transformed into the IETO in 2019, the IETO presents several new chapters with analysis depth.
“IETO will consistently highlight, measure and provide recommendations for accelerating Indonesia’s energy transition from year to year. Several reports providing in-depth analysis on specific aspects related to the energy transition such as aspects of energy transition funding, solar energy, and electric vehicles were published in separate reports entitled Indonesia Sustainable Finance Outlook or ISFO, Indonesia Solar Energy Outlook or ISEO, and Indonesia Electric Vehicle Outlook or IEVO, which complements the IETO analysis and recommendations this year,” explained Deon Arinaldo, IESR Energy Transformation Program Manager.
Supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies, IESR will hold discussions and launch the Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook 2023 report on December 15, 2022. The IETO 2023 report can be accessed at s.id/IETO2023-IESR.