Road to Youth Climate Conference Webinar: Climate Change, Industry and Lifestyle


Tayangan Tunda


Background

The impacts of climate change have become a serious threat to the lives of children and youth. A study conducted by Save the Children in 2020 found that children born in 2020 experienced disasters 3.4 times more frequently than their grandparents born in 1960. The disasters involved climate change, such as heatwaves, droughts, forest fires, floods, and crop failures, putting additional pressure on the environment necessary for children’s growth and protection. Another study conducted by UNICEF highlighted that climate change is the biggest threat to children’s health, nutrition, education, and future.

On the other hand, the development of the industrial sector in recent decades has changed people’s lifestyles in many ways. From electronic goods to daily clothing. Unfortunately, environmentally unsound production and consumption activities often have adverse impacts on climate change. For example, the overuse of natural resources, deforestation due to industrial activities, and the development of fast fashion trends that encourage unsustainable consumption. In fact, the industrial sector alone accounts for 25% of global carbon emissions (UNEP, 2023). Therefore, it is necessary to make changes in mindset and daily behavior, especially for the younger generation, to reduce and mitigate the impact of climate change on the industrial sector and lifestyle.

This webinar aims to dig deeper into how climate change is caused by industry and the lifestyles of the general public, including those of young people. Through in-depth discussions, a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities faced by young people in the context of climate change is expected. In addition, this webinar is also geared towards formulating solutions and concrete actions that can be taken by young people in building sustainable lifestyles and formulating innovations in industry to reduce negative impacts on the environment.

Objective

  • Discuss the impact of climate change on the industrial and lifestyle sectors.
  • Discuss the role of young people in mitigating the impacts of climate change on their lifestyle.

Presentasi

 

Peran Anak Muda dalam Mendorong Arah Perkembangan Industri Indonesia yang Berkelanjutan – Faricha Hidayati

Peran-Anak-Muda-dalam-Mendorong-Arah-Perkembangan-Industri-Indonesia-yang-Berkelanjutan-Faricha-Hidayati

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Webinar on the Decarbonization Opportunities of Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia and Lesson Learnt from Global Experience


Replay Event


Background

Indonesia is one of the largest economies in the world and continues to experience growth. Amongst other economic activities, the industrial sector as the backbone of the economy will also be expected to grow to support the realization of Indonesia Emas in 2045. Along with the growth, the expected growth of the industrial sector will contribute to the country’s total greenhouse gas emissions, which in 2021 have reached about 420 MtCO2 and are expected to double if no necessary measures are taken. Therefore, a commitment to transition towards more sustainable business and industrial practices is compulsory to control and limit the emissions to 31.89-43.2% less than the business-as-usual level in 2030, whilst ensuring the global competitiveness of Indonesia’s industry.

Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) hold a crucial position in Indonesia’s economy and constitute the largest share of manufacturing industries in the country. According to the Asian Development Bank, in 2019, SMEs accounted for about 99% of formal business and nearly 97% of employment in Indonesia. Locally, they also foster social development and equity, contributing to rural development, community empowerment, and poverty reduction. Despite its role in becoming the engine of economic growth locally and nationally, SMEs’ financial management and technical capacitances are often left behind to be developed compared to large businesses. Moreover, as with more relaxed regulations toward SME players, emissions from this sector are often overlooked and may unfold a higher number of emissions compared to the larger industry sector. Based on IESR’s latest study, it is found that the estimated energy-related emissions of SMEs reach 216 MtCO2 in 2023, on par with the emissions generated from industry sectors nationally.

This webinar is conducted to disseminate the latest study findings of IESR and LBNL that focus on exploring decarbonization opportunities suitable for SMEs in Indonesia. Key insights for SME players, policymakers, and financial institutions will be unfolded to unlock the untapped potential of energy efficiency and decarbonization in SMEs whilst improving their business competitiveness toward the current market change. Moreover, global experience on SME decarbonization will be shared to showcase the best practices that are already implemented in China, the United States, and other significant economies in the world hence providing a best reference for retrofitting for Indonesia’s SME landscape. The webinar will be held online via Zoom and streamed on IESR’s YouTube channel. It is expected that the webinar will provide valuable insights and spark innovative initiatives amongst all stakeholders in Indonesia to start the decarbonization journey for SMEs.

Objective 

 

There are several objectives of this workshop:

  1. Disseminate and share information on Indonesia’s Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SME) landscape on its economics, energy, and waste management,
  2. Receive feedback from the SME decarbonization recommendation from relevant key stakeholders,
  3. Discuss essential and actionable steps required to implement the decarbonization initiatives for Indonesia’s SMEs, and 
  4. Discuss challenges and opportunities, and initiate collaborations to promote decarbonization and sustainable growth in selected SMEs in Indonesia.

Presentation

Exploring Decarbonization Opportunities in Indonesia’s Small-to-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) – Abyan Hilmy Yafi

Exploring-Decarbonization-Opportunities-in-Indonesias-Small-to-Medium-Enterprises-SMEs-Abyan-Hilmy-Yafi

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Unlocking Energy Efficiency – Decarbonization Potentials in SMEs – Bo Shen

Unlocking-Energy-Efficiency-Decarbonization-Potentials-in-SMEs-Bo-Shen

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Decarbonization of Small and Medium Industries (SMIs) in Indonesia – Achmad Taufik

DECARBONIZATION-OF-SMALL-AND-MEDIUM-INDUSTRIES-SMIs-IN-INDONESIA-Achmad-Taufik

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Report Launch Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

Replay Event


Background

The Bali Provincial Government set a vision for 2023,2023,Bali Net Zero Emissions by 2045 in August 2023 supported by non-governmental organization partners. This vision covers the electricity, transportation, and climate entrepreneurship development sectors. This ambitious target can be achieved by the Bali Provincial Government through an effective and collaborative strategy and a targeted and accountable roadmap. To ensure the achievement of these targets, the roadmap to Bali NZE was developed to formulate policies that support the growth of an optimal renewable energy development ecosystem and prepare a green workforce that will drive the transition.

According to Kemenko Marves, Nusa Penida Island, located in the south of Bali, holds five national titles, namely as a National Tourism Strategic Area (KSPN), one of the Outermost Islands, an Aquatic Conservation Area, a Bali Cattle Breeding Center, and a Renewable Energy Development Tourism Area. Nusa Penida’s strategic role can be encouraged as a pilot project to supply electricity powered by renewable energy to supply all electricity needs independently on one island. The existence of the senseinpilot project and the strategic predicate of Nusa Penida is expected to change the paradigm of renewable energy-based energy provision at a broader sense.

To support this initiative, IESR, in collaboration with partners, analyzed the potential of renewable energy (RE) in Nusa Penida that can be developed. Based on the results of the analysis, the potential for RE in Nusa Penida includes rooftop solar power plants worth more than 10.9 MWp, biodiesel power plants (castor plants and seaweed) of more than 2 MW, small-scale wind power plants, and Pump Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) capable of reaching more than 120 MW. Apart from renewable energy, the energy potential in Nusa Penida can also utilize wastewaste (Waste to Energy/WtE) at 700 kW.

After knowing the renewable energy potential of Nusa Penida, IESR also analyzed Nusa Penida’s electricity system in more depth to determine the optimal configuration of generation, transmission, and distribution systems to supply regional energy needs, including the capacity of potential renewable energy power plants, proposed locations, and network adjustment needs. The results of this analysis and study can be encouraged and are expected to become a blueprint for renewable energy-based island development and become part of the Bali NZE 2045 roadmap.

Objective 

This event was organized with the aim of disseminating the results of the Nusa Penida 100% study.

Spreading the Issue of Energy Transitions Through Journalistic

Palembang, 20 February 2024 – Indonesia increased its commitment of achieving the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) in 2030 to 31.89% (unconditional) and 43.20% (conditional). The government has also issued Presidential Regulation No. 112 of 2022 concerning the Acceleration of Renewable Energy Development for Electric Power Supply Supports the Acceleration of Domestic Energy Transitions. Various government programs hopefully will help Indonesia to achieve the Net Zero Emission (NZE) target in 2060 or faster.

The media plays an important role in guarding the issue of climate change, including energy transition policies from the government. The media also played a role in building public support while providing education about the issue of energy transition. Through informative and weighty coverage, the media can help form public opinion, motivate actions, and support steps towards a more sustainable energy system.

In this regard, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) with the Palembang Independent Journalist Alliance (AJI) and the Indonesian Environmental Journalist Community (SIEJ) South Sumatra held a network of South Sumatra journalists with the theme “Spreading the Issue of Energy Transitions Through Journalistic” on February 20, 2024, in Palembang. In the event which was attended by 39 journalists from various print and online media in South Sumatra, the speakers from the South Sumatra Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) Office, Sriwijaya University, and IESR took turns giving presentations.

Head of Energy Division from the South Sumatra ESDM Office Dr. Aryansyah explained that the realization of the South Sumatra renewable energy mix in 2022 had reached 23.85% or two percent higher than the 2025 target listed in RUED Province. Nevertheless, the utilization of renewable energy has only reached 989.12 MW or 4.7% of the total solar, hydro, wind, bioenergy, and geothermal energy potential of 21,032 MW.

“There are several strategies for implementing regional level energy management in South Sumatra. For example with the issuance of South Sumatra Governor Regulation Number 26 of 2021 concerning the use of battery-based electricity vehicles to support the acceleration of electric motor vehicle programs. As an implementation of the regulation, on April 25, 2022 the South Sumatra ESDM Office had an electric car unit. Another example, we are also conducting a study of potential biomass based on cow dung in Musi Banyuasin Regency, “said Aryansyah.

Lecturer in the Faculty of Economics, Sriwijaya University, Dr. Abdul Bashir explained that from an economic point of view, energy transitions will increase energy security and reduce dependence on fossil fuel imports. Energy transition can also increase economic diversification and create new sources of income that are beneficial to the surrounding community.

“In terms of policy, the government needs to set clear targets and roadmaps for energy transitions. Regulations that support the development of EBT, such as fiscal incentives and facilitate the licensing process can also be considered. The media needs to oversee this issue by providing education about the transition of energy, EBT, and its impact on the community. Conversely, the media can also voice the aspirations and concerns of the community about energy transitions, “said Abdul Bashir.

The IESR Communication Team Kurniawati Hasjanah stated that the mass media was still the main source of information for readers who wanted to explore the issue of energy transitions, followed by research, academic webinars, then influencers on social media. Interestingly, the focus of the news is still dominated by the point of view delivered by the government and business people.

“In preaching the issue of energy transitions, journalists need to understand that new energy generated from technology cannot be categorized as renewable energy, such as nuclear energy, coal gasification, and coal liquidation. Journalists also need to reveal the social and economic implications of energy transitions, including in terms of employment and affected workers. Policies related to energy transitions must be participatory since the transition concerns the lives of many people, “said Kurniawati Hasjanah.

Lack of Encouragement for Energy Transition Acceleration from the Three Candidates during the Vice Presidential Debate

Jakarta, January 23, 2024 – The second vice presidential candidate debate, on Sunday (21/1/2024), raised the issue of sustainable development, natural resources, environment, energy, food, agriculture, indigenous peoples, and villages, drawing public attention. Various attack games and mutual insinuations marred the debate.

The Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) and panelist of the second vice presidential debate, Fabby Tumiwa, assessed that the fourth debate of the 2024 Presidential Election (Pilpres) had not prioritized content primarily related to the energy transition. This makes several vital issues related to the economy and the environment far from serious discussion.

“In my opinion, many candidates did not understand the panelists’ questions that the moderator read out. They did not seem to respond to the questions appropriately, and during the question and answer session, the vice president seemed to give insubstantial questions. Thus, I see that the three vice presidential candidates have not debated (debate ideas-ed), “said Fabby Tumiwa in the Kompas TV Special Report program on Tuesday (23/1/2024).

 

Fabby stated that the hot debate between the vice presidential candidates at the Jakarta Convention Center had also yet to discuss essential issues. This cannot be separated from the discussion format, which does not support exploring ideas effectively enough.

Vice Presidential Statement on Debate

The three vice presidential candidates in the second debate had similar views on the transition to green energy. Muhaimin Iskandar, the first Vice Presidential candidate, assesses that the current government’s commitment is not serious in carrying out the energy transition, as shown by the reduction in the target of new renewable energy (NRE) and the delay in carbon tax. For this reason, Muhaimin is committed to accelerating the carbon tax implementation while carrying out the NRE transition.

Vice Presidential candidate number 2, Gibran Rakabuming Raka, said that an equitable low-carbon development policy must stop dependence on fossil energy.

On the other hand, the third Vice Presidential candidate, Mahfud MD, only addressed the issue of resolving natural resources and energy, emphasizing the need for a thorough resolution from upstream to downstream

To find out the facts behind the statements of the three vice presidential candidates at the debate, IESR has held a Live Fact Check of the Vice Presidential Debate via Twitter, which can be accessed on IESR Twitter.

Dialogue on Equitable Transition: Identifying the Role of the Private Sector in Socio-Economic Empowerment of Communities

Replay Event


Background

Indonesia is the third largest coal producing country after India and China in 2022. According to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia targets coal production of 694.5 million tons in 2023, 0.47% higher than the previous year’s target. As of October 2023, Indonesia’s coal production has reached 567.2 tons or 81.67% of this year’s production target. Coal in Indonesia will mostly be sold to the export market (75%-80%) and consumed domestically (20%-25%). However, with the trend of energy transition, Indonesia’s coal demand seems to be declining, one of which is from India. India decreased its coal demand from Indonesia from 8.43 million tons to 6.11 million tons as of June 2023.

In addition to the downward trend in coal demand from abroad, the Indonesian government has endorsed several commitments that will affect the use of coal going forward in line with the energy transition agenda towards renewable energy. In 2022, the Government of Indonesia passed Presidential Regulation No. 112 of 2022 on the Acceleration of Renewable Energy Development for Electricity Generation, which explicitly stipulates a ban on the construction of coal-fired power plants starting in 2030. This commitment was supported through the signing of the Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) agreement between Indonesia and IPG and GFANZ. Through the CIPP document, the Government of Indonesia intends to achieve peak emissions in the power sector at 290 MT CO2 and a renewable energy mix of 34% by 2030. In addition, the document also states that Indonesia should strive for an equitable energy transition process where social, economic and environmental impacts are also a concern for policy makers. The existence of national and global policies also has the potential to affect the company’s business and also the socio-economic structure of communities around mining areas.

Extractive industry activities are often the main source of local revenue, but they also cause economic, socio-community and environmental losses. With the energy transition agenda, the government plans to limit coal consumption, which will lead to faster closure of coal mines and affect local community activities. In Law No.4/2009 on Mineral and Coal Mining, post-mining activities require business actors to restore the natural environment to its original state. This is also stipulated in Law No.40/2007 which requires companies in the natural resources sector to carry out Social Responsibility activities which are widely associated with community empowerment. By integrating activities that suit the economic needs of the community with the company’s plans, it is hoped that the community can independently develop their economic activities and can be free from dependence on the company. Thus, the role of the company and local government is important for post-mining activities.

Therefore, IESR intends to invite business actors to provide information and strategies for planning successful community and environmental empowerment programs in preparation for post-mining activities. This event is also expected to strengthen post-mining planning between the government and business owners in the fair energy transition agenda.

Objective

This activity has several objectives, namely:

  1. To obtain and disseminate information related to post-mining reclamation programs both in terms of planning and implementation as well as the challenges faced towards an equitable transition;
  2. Obtain and disseminate information on the role of businesses or industries in preparing for the impact of the energy transition on the community and the surrounding environment;
  3. Identify collaborative forms of post-mining activities to develop based on economic potential, natural resources, and people through the implementation of a just transition;

Presentation

Reclamation and Post-Mining, Koordinator PPNS Minerba – Dr. Y. Sulistiyohadi

Reklamasi-dan-Pascatambang-Koordinator-PPNS-Minerba

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Reclamation and Post-Mining Ombilin1 – Yulfaizon

Reklamasi-Pasca-Tambang-Ombilin1-IESR

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Driving the Energy Transition from the Sub-National Level

Semarang, 19 December 2023 – The annual Climate Summit (Summit) held in Dubai in November – December 2023 resulted in a number of global agreements, one of which was an agreement by 118 countries to transition and abandon fossil fuels. This agreement was born partly due to pressure from countries experiencing the impacts of climate change. 2023 was recorded as the hottest year in history.

In his opening speech for the Central Java Renewable Energy Acceleration Forum, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) stated that the simplest thing to ensure the energy transition occurs is to add renewable energy capacity to the energy mix. To massively add renewable energy capacity requires significant investment costs and comprehensive enabling conditions.

“The complex and expensive energy transition can only occur if there are enabling conditions, including rules and regulations, support for public and private partnerships, community initiatives, and investment. Currently, to achieve the RUED target, regional funding capacity is still insufficient, so it is necessary to encourage investment,” said Fabby.

Head of the Central Java Province Energy and Mineral Resources Service, Boedyo Dharmawan, said that his party had contributed to achieving the target of 23% of the national renewable energy mix by 2025.

“In 2023, Central Java Province achieved a regional renewable energy mix of 21.2%. We will continue to encourage this capacity addition in the coming years. Apart from that, we also encourage energy conservation practices through energy and water saving movements, in government agencies and also in business entities, including energy audits,” he said.

Tavip Rubiyanto, Middle Expert Policy Analyst on Energy Substances and Mineral Resources, Directorate of SUPD I, Directorate General of Regional Development, Ministry of Home Affairs, highlighted the role of the entire OPD sector in matters of managing renewable energy in the regions.

“From the start, the ESDM Service had to coordinate with related agencies such as Environment, Transportation and Planning Services. So that RUED can be integrated into the RPJMD. “It does take effort to convince and provide understanding for Bappeda to support this EBT target, but that is what must be done,” said Tavip.

In terms of investment trends, Indonesia is becoming a global investment destination even though currently there are still several investment challenges. This was conveyed by Purwo Wiyatmanto, Head of Sub-Directorate for Promotion Strategy Analyst/ Middle Expert Investment Management, Ministry of Investment/BKPM.

“Investment in the new renewable energy sector is also increasing in demand. The increasing need for energy is also accompanied by an increasing share of renewable energy. Indonesia’s new renewable energy share of around 14.5% (below the ASEAN average) is a challenge in itself, but this is also an opportunity for growth,” he said.

From an industrial perspective, there is actually a need for clean electricity produced by sustainable energy sources. This need becomes stronger if an industry enters the global brand supply chain. Rudi Cahyono, Energy Carbon Manager, PT Selalu Cinta Indonesia (SCI) said this pressure was because his party was included in the supply chain of the footwear industry which is marketed globally.

“We are committed to using 100% renewable energy by 2030 as a consequence of our entry into the global supply chain. By 2024, the target is that we can reduce our carbon footprint by 99%,” said Rudi.

Sakina Rosellasari, Head of the Central Java Province One Stop Investment and Integrated Services Service (PMPTSP), added that her agency continues to actively promote projects that are ready to be developed by investors.

“Central Java is open to green investment, not only labor intensive, but also green economic management,” he said.

Apart from investment on an industrial scale, the use of renewable energy at the community level also needs to continue to be encouraged. Yanto, Head of Banyuroto Village (one of the Energy Independent Villages), Magelang Regency, stated that there is a lot of renewable energy potential on a small scale that can be utilized on a communal scale with the support of the local government.

“Future plans, we, the village government, are trying to increase the amount of biogas in the community, around 100 biogas digesters at least in the next 5 years and budget it in the (village fund) APBDes and are ready to collaborate with related agencies, campuses and other parties,” he said.

With 34 biogas digesters spread throughout almost the entire Banyuroto Village area, this digester has helped the welfare of the community since 2007, starting from cooking needs (reducing household cost), lighting without converters and zero waste from the results of the biogas process (solid and liquid fertilizer, bioslurry).

In 2023, the national government will make a number of important notes in the development of renewable energy. The revision of the National Energy Policy (KEN) document and the inauguration of the Cirata Floating PLTS are among the major points in the energy transition process this year.

Adimas Pradityo, Business and Commerce Development Manager, PLN Nusantara Power said that in 2024 there will be PLTS development in Central Java with a capacity of 140 MW in several locations including Batang and Pemalang. Adimas also shared PLN Nusantara Power’s experience in developing the Cirata floating PLTS.

“(One of) the challenges is explaining the PLTS concept to regulators. We really have a bottom up approach in licensing the development of the Cirata Floating PLTS,” he said.

IETO 2024: Reviewing Progress in the Energy Transition in Indonesia

Jakarta, 15 December 2023 – In the last three years, there has been a number of advances in the energy transition in Indonesia. Since 2020, the Indonesian government has begun to include the energy transition agenda in the government’s agenda.

At the launch of the annual flagship report Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook 2024, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) emphasized that this progress is important.

“In the last 3 years, Indonesia has attempted to consolidate renewable energy incentive policies. The results are not yet widely visible, but the energy transition issue is increasingly being discussed, has become an important issue, and is on the government agenda. The next stage, with a consolidated policy, Indonesia’s energy transition steps can be faster.”

Fabby added that in compiling the IETO 2024 report, the IESR team used four frameworks to analyze the development of the energy transition in Indonesia including (1) policy and regulatory framework, (2) funding and investment support, (3) implementation of technology, and (4) social impact and public support.

On the same occasion, Dadan Kusdiana, Secretary General of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR), stated that the consolidation carried out by the government at this time was not only carried out from a regulatory perspective, but was also carried out from a techno-economic one.

“In our opinion, one of the keys to the success of NZE (net zero emissions) in the power generation sector is the existence of a super grid that connects the islands in Indonesia,” said Dadan.

Indonesia’s decarbonization achievements during 2023 are considered less than encouraging, where in this one year the addition of renewable energy capacity only increased by around 1 GW, far from the 2021-2030 RUPTL target which set 3.4 GW target in the same period.

Alvin Sisdwinugraha, IESR Electricity Sector Analyst, said that Indonesia needs to immediately improve to pursue its decarbonization target, especially in developing renewable energy projects.

“The government can implement a number of strategies including reviewing the project preparation phase, increasing project attractiveness, improving the domestic renewable energy supply chain, and immediately improving electricity network infrastructure,” he said

Alvin also highlighted the biomass development strategy, which is closely related to the availability of land for the feedstock. Considering the limited availability of land, he said. It would be good if the use of biomass is focused on hard-to-abate sectors.

Apart from the electricity sector, other sectors that consume energy are industry and buildings. The industrial sector is the trigger for a significant increase in energy consumption in Indonesia, or around 81%. In 2022, there will be the addition of 5 commercial smelter units, which could have an impact on the potential to double energy consumption by 2023.

Fathin Sabbiha Wismadi, Energy Efficiency Analyst in Buildings, IESR, said that the existence of binding regulations would be an acceleration of energy efficiency.

“We have 6 things that can contribute to reducing energy intensity in Indonesia, first, electrification. Second, energy efficiency, third, regulations regarding energy consumption and energy efficiency, fourth, ecosystem and infrastructure such as charging locations, fifth, incentives and sixth, increase awareness of the Indonesian people,” said Fathin.

From the supply side, at the sub-national level, a number of provinces in Indonesia have completed General Regional Energy Plans (RUED). Anindita Hapsari, Agricultural Analyst, Forestry, Land Use and Climate Change IESR highlights the need for assistance in each region in accelerating the adoption of renewable energy.

“The capabilities of each region are different, requiring assistance in the form of regulations and schemes, both financial and non-financial,” said Anin.

Availability of financing is one of the issues that hinders the acceleration of renewable energy. One reason is that the perception of renewable energy investment is still relatively low. Martha Jessica, IESR Socioeconomic Analyst conveyed that investment in renewable energy generation is still considered a high-risk investment.

“The realization of investment in renewables is also still low. The trend is very far from ideal, in which this year and last year did not reach the target, namely the investment target of USD 1.8 billion in 2023, but last semester only around 30% was achieved,” she said.

The electricity sector is the leading sector in Indonesia’s decarbonization agenda, because it already has a decarbonization roadmap. However, targets in the electricity sector are still not easy to achieve.

His Muhammad Bintang, Energy Storage and Battery Technology Analyst, IESR, said there are at least three things that need to be encouraged to ensure the electricity sector decarbonization target is achieved.

“First, we need to build a clean energy ecosystem, secondly physical and non-physical infrastructure, and prioritize interventions that have been proved,” he said.