Playing Backdoor in Emission Reduction Solutions

Fabby Tumiwa dalam Konferensi Pers Climate Action Tracker

Jakarta, December 6, 2023 – The Climate Action Tracker (CAT) has released its latest report on the climate ambition and action of 42 countries, including the European Union. CAT’s assessment shows that there has been no significant change in global temperature reduction efforts since last year.

CAT modeled four temperature increase scenarios based on current policies and actions, 2030 emission reduction targets, net zero emission (NZE) targets and optimistic scenarios. All four scenarios lead to an increase in global temperature of between 1.8℃ and 2.7℃ by 2100.

Bill Hare, CEO of Climate Analytics said that even based on the global stocktake, the world is already off track to limit global warming to below 1.5℃.

“The emissions should be decreasing now and they should be decreasing quickly, but they’re continuing to increase. The central issue for this COP and the global stocktake is to reach a conclusion about the phasing out of fossil fuels. Unless we do that, I doubt whether we’re going to see an improvement in the temperature outcome,” said Bill Hare at the CAT press conference in Dubai (5/12).

Similarly, Claire Stockwell, Senior Climate Policy Analyst, Climate Analytics argues that countries’ emissions reduction targets for 2030 are very weak

“We assess the 2030 targets for countries that have very weak targets. So for countries that we already are projecting now can very easily meet those targets with current policies, including Indonesia,” Claire said.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) revealed that Indonesia’s downgrade to critically insufficient in terms of climate policy and action was due to an increase in emissions of over 21% compared to last year. Fabby explained that this increase was a result of constructing new coal power plants and resuming operations of previously paused power plants due to Covid-19.

“The Indonesia government actually has made a number of policies, for instance, last year the president issued regulations prohibiting additional new coal plants for utilities but allowing captive coal under specific conditions. We believe these regulations will have an impact, though not immediately, but perhaps in the near future,” Fabby said.

Niklas Höhne, an expert at the New Climate Institute, said that this insignificant emission reduction effort occurs because many countries are proposing backdoors to continue the use of fossil energy. He gave examples of several terms that reflect back door solutions, such as unabated fossil energy, shifting the focus to fossil fuel ‘emissions’, and phasing down fossil energy. Meanwhile, according to him, based on the Paris Agreement, countries have agreed to balance emissions and sources, and this can only happen if all fossil energy operations phase out.

“If we now decide on something more vague, like unabated fossil fuels, phasing out of emissions or something, that will be a step backwards,” he added.

He also highlighted technological solutions aiming to extend the life of fossil energy, like green hydrogen for use in gas boilers or producing ammonia using renewable energy and using it in coal-fired power plants. He considers these technological choices to be incorrect, inefficient, and costly.

CASE IESR: Indonesia Needs to Encourage Stronger Commitment from ASEAN Countries to Reducing GHG Emissions in the Region

press release

Jakarta, 15 August 2023 Holding the Chair of ASEAN in 2023 and possessing significant economic influence within the ASEAN region, Indonesia can foster a joint agreement among other ASEAN member countries to promote the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in alignment with the Paris Agreement. Additionally, Indonesia can mobilize support from other countries as several ASEAN nations aim to phase out coal-fired power plant operations incrementally before 2050. Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), conveyed this message during a media briefing titled “Measuring ASEAN’s Climate Ambition at the Helm of Indonesia’s ASEAN 2023 Chairmanship.”

According to Fabby, while Indonesia prohibits the construction of new coal-fired power plants (PLTU) for general use, allowing their construction for industrial purposes can impede the achievement of a higher renewable energy mix. He emphasized that the Indonesian government should advocate for a stronger commitment to ending the operation of coal-fired power plants throughout ASEAN countries. Furthermore, Indonesia should bolster its renewable energy expansion within ASEAN, particularly in solar energy development. Fabby encouraged discussions on an integrated supply chain to be established during the ASEAN Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM) scheduled for August 2023.

“We hope that during AMEM, Indonesia can propose to become a manufacturing hub for solar PV, encompassing technology from polysilicon to solar modules. Although some ASEAN countries have advanced manufacturing capabilities, they are still limited to cells and modules. Moreover, this manufacturing progress lacks integration. Indonesia, endowed with raw materials like silica sand, has the potential, as Chair of ASEAN 2023, to champion an integrated supply chain through a collective agreement,” he stated.

He added that climate threats are escalating for ASEAN nations, significantly impacting the region’s food security, energy security, and developmental progress. Without earnest endeavors to curb global emissions, climate change will compound challenges, making sustained economic growth of over 6% in the Southeast Asian region even more challenging.

Berlianto Pandapotan Hasudungan, Director of ASEAN Economic Cooperation at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia, explained that transitioning to renewable energy and reducing reliance on petroleum is pivotal for Indonesia’s leadership within ASEAN amidst geopolitical, Myanmar, and climate crises.

“Alongside the advancement of electric vehicles, ASEAN is fostering energy interconnections among member countries and embarking on studies for energy interconnections within the region,” he elaborated.

Shahnaz Nur Firdausi, a Researcher on Climate and Energy at IESR, highlighted that Indonesia’s climate policies and commitments do not align with the Paris Agreement’s objective of capping temperature rise at 1.5°C. The Climate Action Tracker (CAT) report underscores the insufficiency of Indonesia’s climate targets and policies. If other countries follow a similar path, global warming could exceed 2°C to 3°C.

“For this reason, Indonesia’s climate policies and actions in 2030 require substantial improvements in line with a temperature limit of 1.5°C. Indonesia should elevate the NDC target to 75% under the NDC business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, excluding land use and land use change and forestry (conditional), and 62% (unconditional). Furthermore, Indonesia’s land use and forestry emissions have accounted for nearly 50% of total emissions over the past two decades,” said Shahnaz.

In concluding remarks, Agus Tampubolon, the Project Manager of Clean, Affordable, and Secure Energy (CASE) for Southeast Asia, emphasized the significance of collaboration among ASEAN member countries to expedite the energy transition.

“Indonesia can serve as a model for the ASEAN region by spearheading the energy transition. ASEAN countries possess tremendous potential for joint efforts in advancing solar PV technologies and crafting policies that facilitate the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy, thereby amplifying climate targets,” Agus affirmed.

Kendaraan Listrik dan Dekarbonisasi Sektor Transportasi Darat Indonesia

Siaran Pers

Transportasi darat sumbang emisi tertinggi dari total emisi gas rumah kaca sektor transportasi di Indonesia

  • Kurangi emisi gas rumah kaca dari sektor transportasi, Indonesia perlu menerapkan instrumen kebijakan untuk meningkatkan jumlah kendaraan listrik dalam menggantikan kendaraan berbahan bakar fosil
  • Di saat harga minyak dunia sedang turun saat ini, pajak karbon yang diterapkan pada bahan bakar fosil merupakan suatu instrumen yang dapat diterapkan di Indonesia untuk meningkatkan jumlah kendaraan listrik sebagai upaya penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca

Jakarta— 29 Maret 2020 — Institute for Essential Services Reform sebagai anggota dari Climate Transparency melakukan kajian mengenai dekarbonisasi sektor transportasi, dengan menganalisis rangkaian instrumen kebijakan yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan peran kendaraan listrik dalam mendorong ambisi negara mencapai Persetujuan Paris, agar dapat berada di jalur untuk mencapai batasan target kenaikan suhu 2/1,5°C.

Julius C. Adiatma, Clean Fuel Specialist IESR, memaparkan laporan “The Role of Electric Vehicles in Decarbonizing Indonesia’s Road Transport Sector” yang di luncurkan dalam kegiatan Webinar pada Minggu 29 Maret 2020 dan juga melibatkan panelis secara daring, Dr. Mohammad Mustafa Sarinanto, Kepala Balai Besar Teknologi Konversi Energi, BPPT, dan Damantoro, Ketua Masyarakat Transportasi Indonesia Wilayah Jakarta.

“Hasil pemodelan dari studi kami menunjukkan bahwa masuknya kendaraan listrik pada pasar mobil penumpang dan sepeda motor memiliki potensi menurunkan emisi GRK dari sektor transportasi darat, terutama dari penggunaan kendaraan pribadi. Untuk mewujudkan potensi tersebut, dibutuhkan berbagai dukungan kebijakan dari pemerintah, baik kebijakan fiskal maupun non fiskal seperti penyediaan infrastruktur pengisian kendaraan listrik umum. Yang tidak kalah penting adalah mengganti pembangkit batubara dengan energi terbarukan supaya emisi gas rumah kaca tidak berpindah dari transportasi ke pembangkit” menurut Julius.

Di Indonesia, emisi dari sektor transportasi hampir mencapai 30% dari total emisi CO2, dimana emisi tertinggi terutama berasal dari transportasi darat, yang berkontribusi pada 88% dari total emisi di sektor ini (IEA, 2015). Termasuk di dalamnya adalah mobil penumpang dan sepeda motor, yang tumbuh dengan pesat seiring dengan penggunaannya sebagai moda perjalanan utama di daerah perkotaan. Misalnya, penjualan mobil domestik telah bertumbuh lebih dari dua kali lipat dalam 15 tahun terakhir (dari 480 ribu unit pada tahun 2004 menjadi di atas 1 juta unit pada tahun 2019). Tren ini diprediksi akan terus meningkat, dan dengan demikian, sektor transportasi akan terus menjadi salah satu penghasil emisi utama di negara ini. Namun, rencana mitigasi dari pemerintah untuk sektor transportasi yang tercantum dalam NDC, masih terbatas pada pengalihan bahan bakar menjadi bahan bakar nabati dan perluasan stasiun pengisian bahan bakar gas bumi. Sementara itu, peran kendaraan listrik (termasuk hibrida, hibrida plug-in, dan kendaraan listrik baterai), yang banyak dilihat oleh beberapa pakar sebagai kunci dalam mengurangi emisi GRK di sektor ini, masih belum dimasukkan dalam NDC Indonesia.

Indonesia harus mengambil tindakan mitigasi perubahan iklim secara drastis di sektor transportasi. Menurut proyeksi The Climate Action Tracker, total emisi Indonesia (tidak termasuk LULUCF) setara dengan 3,75 – 4% dari total emisi global pada tahun 2030. Agar sejalan dengan 1,5°C, proporsi bahan bakar rendah karbon di bauran bahan bakar transportasi harus meningkat menjadi sekitar 60% pada tahun 2050.

Climate Action Tracker menjabarkan skenario 1,5°C yang kompatibel untuk Indonesia, yang membatasi emisi dari sektor transportasi menjadi 2 MtCO2e pada tahun 2050. Skenario ini mencakup peningkatan penggunaan transportasi umum, peningkatan ekonomi bahan bakar kendaraan konvensional, dan elektrifikasi 100% kendaraan penumpang darat (mobil, motor, dan bus) pada tahun 2050. Untuk mencapai 100% elektrifikasi kendaraan pada tahun 2050, Indonesia perlu menghentikan penjualan kendaraan berbahan bakar fosil antara tahun 2035 s.d. 2040, dengan asumsi masa pakai kendaraan 15 tahun. Dengan penetrasi pasar kendaraan listrik yang sangat rendah saat ini, maka pemerintah perlu menerapkan kebijakan yang mendukung untuk mencapai target ini.

Di sisi lain, dengan bauran listrik saat ini, penetrasi kendaraan listrik akan meningkatkan emisi karbon di Indonesia. Peningkatan emisi ini, sebagian besar terkait dengan pembangkitan listrik dari sumber bahan bakar fosil. Selain itu, emisi juga berasal dari produksi komponen dalam kendaraan listrik, terutama baterai. Namun, sekalipun Indonesia dapat mencapai daya bauran energi terbarukan 23% pada tahun 2025, penggunaan mobil listrik diprediksi akan menghasilkan emisi karbon sekitar 2,6% lebih rendah dibanding mobil konvensional.

Erina Mursanti, Program Manager Green Economy IESR, mengatakan, dalam situasi rendahnya harga minyak dunia saat ini yang turun hingga lebih dari 50% (dari harga acuan yang tertera pada Nota Keuangan APBN 2020), pemerintah sebaiknya menerapkan pajak karbon pada pemakaian bahan bakar fosil, alih-alih menurunkan harga bahan bakar minyak dalam negeri; dimana hasil penerimaan pajak ini dapat digunakan untuk pengembangan industri kendaraan listrik.

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Gandabhaskara Saputra,