Nusa Penida: From Natural Beauty to Energy Independence

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, Analis Sistem Ketenagalistrikan dan Energi Terbarukan

Jakarta, March 28, 2024 – Nusa Penida, a beautiful island in the southeast of Bali, Indonesia, is undergoing extensive transformation to adopt renewable energy sources. With its stunning natural beauty, Nusa Penida will transform into an island that relies entirely on renewable energy sources. Given the challenges posed by global climate change, it is crucial to take measures to reduce carbon emissions and promote environmental sustainability.

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, an Electricity System and Renewable Energy Analyst at the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), has explained that Nusa Penida was selected as an island with 100% renewable energy for three primary reasons. Firstly, the island has an abundance of renewable energy potential. Secondly, its geographical location is separated from mainland Bali. And thirdly, the development of green tourism provides economic potential.

“To achieve 100% renewable energy in Nusa Penida, three stages of implementation can be carried out over the next six years (starting from 2024). The first stage, from 2024 to 2027, will focus on maximizing the potential of rooftop power plants (PLTS) to reduce diesel consumption during the day. Currently, the Nusa Penida electricity system is still reliant on diesel power plants (PLTD), which will be gradually phased out as the implementation progresses,” said Alvin in the X Space entitled Towards Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

The second phase, continued Alvin, began to place PLTD as a backup plan in 2027-2029 and explore other renewable energy sources, such as biomass. According to Alvin, Gamal plants in Nusa Penida can become a source of biomass power plants (PLTBm). The final stage will focus on optimizing other renewable energy plants like biodiesel and ocean currents and building pumped hydro energy storage in 2029-2030.

“It is possible to create an island that runs entirely on renewable energy sources, and this can be achieved through a step-by-step process. For instance, we can start with small-scale projects such as Nusa Penida Island by 2030. We also encourage the decarbonization of Bali’s electricity system to make Bali a sustainable and eco-friendly destination for all,” Alvin said. 

Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari, the Center of Excellence Community Based Renewable Energy (CORE) Chairperson at Udayana University, mentioned that Nusa Penida was previously known for seaweed farming before its development as a tourist destination. The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP) has designated a seaweed cultivation zone covering approximately 464 hectares, and this area can produce up to nine kiloliters of seaweed daily. However, out of the 20,000 hectares of land or water suitable for seaweed planting, only 70 hectares are currently in use.

“Nusa Penida, a community that was once focused on traditional industries, has shifted its economic orientation to the tourism sector. Seaweed has emerged as a promising source of bioenergy, including biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel. To fully utilize this potential, proper management of seaweed farming is necessary. Seaweed farmers in Nusa Penida must be aware of the renewable energy potential of seaweed and take appropriate steps to manage their farms effectively,” said Ida Ayu. 

In reflecting on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ida Ayu mentioned that many destinations within the tourism industry suffered significant losses. As such, there has been a growing need for sustainable economic resilience, and one viable option is cultivating seaweed. Currently, there are several conditions where the harvested seaweed, for example, has only been processed into laundry soap, bath soap, crackers, drinks, and so on. Even more, farmers sell it directly after harvest.

“When people realize the economic value that can be gained from seaweed farming, it is more likely to be adopted. Besides seaweed, Jatropha curcas also has the potential to be used as an energy source. Based on my research, approximately 20% of the total 4,000 hectares of land on Nusa Penida Island can be utilized for growing Jatropha curcas,” said Ida Ayu. 

Ida Ayu provided a pertinent example wherein a 25% allotment of land, approximately 1,000 hectares, dedicated to Jatropha cultivation can yield a biodiesel output between 540-680 liters per hectare. Jatropha is a shrub-like plant found in tropical regions. Its seeds contain oil, which can be processed into biodiesel.


Download Potential Mapping Presentation for Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

Realizing Bali Net Zero Starts with 100 Percent Renewable Energy in Nusa Penida by 2030

press release

Nusa Penida, March 6, 2024 – The energy transition agenda in Bali Province will be one of the main axes to achieve Bali’s target for net zero emission (NZE) by 2045. The Bali Provincial Government is collaborating with various parties, such as the Bali Net Zero Emission Coalition, which includes the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), WRI Indonesia, New Energy Nexus Indonesia, and CAST Foundation. One of the initiatives taken to achieve this goal is to transition from fossil energy to 100% renewable energy in Nusa Penida by 2030.

Nusa Penida is an island located south of Bali Province, belonging to the Klungkung Regency. The demand for energy is projected to grow with the increase in tourism in Nusa Penida. The energy requirements of Nusa Penida are met by diesel and solar power plants, with a total capacity of 17.06 MW and more than 21 thousand customers. The solar power plants, with batteries of 1.8 MWh, have a capacity of 3.5 MW. Using renewable energy in the form of solar power plants has raised the ratio of renewable energy in the energy mix to nearly 26 percent.

During a speech by the Governor of Bali, S. M. Mahendra Jaya, which was delivered by I Dewa Gede Mahendra Putra, Assistant 1 Government and Welfare of the Regional Secretary of Bali Province, mentioned that the development of renewable energy should be aligned with the economic road map. This alignment will help create a green economy that can flourish in Nusa Penida and Bali.

“The government of Bali is committed to supporting the development of a renewable energy ecosystem that offers various opportunities for green employment, promotes moral and spiritual values in society, and works in synergy with various policies. This ensures that the 2045 Net Zero Emissions (NZE) target is achieved, starting with Nusa Penida. The Bali government always supports the development of a renewable energy ecosystem that provides a variety of opportunities for green labor, raising moral and spiritual values in society and synergy with various policies issued so that the 2045 NZE target can be realized, starting from Nusa Penida,” said I Dewa Gede Mahendra Putra at the launch of the Nusa Penida 100 Percent Renewable Energy Roadmap report organized by IESR in collaboration with the Bali Provincial Government.

To achieve a 100% renewable energy mix by 2030, IESR and Udayana University’s CORE have finalized the Nusa Penida renewable energy roadmap.

Fabby Tumiwa, the Executive Director of IESR, stated that since the renewable energy mix in Nusa Penida has already reached 24 percent, the island only needs to aim for an additional 76 percent by 2030, taking into account the rise in electricity demand, reliability, and production costs.

“To achieve 100 percent renewable energy in Nusa Penida by 2030, three stages need to be completed. Stage one will occur from 2024 to 2027, during which PLTD will be replaced with rooftop solar PV during the day. In stage two, from 2027 to 2029, PLTD will be used as a backup generator, while other renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel and ocean currents, will be optimized. Finally, during stage three in 2029-2030, pumped hydro energy storage will be built to complete the transition to 100 percent renewable energy., “said Fabby.

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, a renewable energy analyst at IESR, stated that solar PV is crucial in increasing Nusa Penida’s renewable energy mix. It has a more significant technical potential and cost-competitiveness than other renewable energy plants, with a capacity of up to 3.2 GW.

“Encouraging the use of rooftop solar panels in Nusa Penida can reduce generation costs borne by system operators. This is because the higher the penetration of rooftop solar panels, the lower the costs. The potential savings can reach up to 7.3 percent, which exceeds the integration costs incurred by the operator. Therefore, it’s beneficial to promote the use of rooftop solar panels,” Alvin explained.


According to him, to overcome the problem of variability by renewable energy power plants in Nusa Penida, there are several systems and technologies that can be used, such as power conversion systems, energy management systems, and energy storage systems.

Technical research on renewable energy sources is necessary to advance the Nusa Penida 100% renewable energy roadmap. The roadmap must align with regional development, energy planning, and PLN’s RUPTL. Additionally, adopting rooftop solar power plants in the commercial sector should be encouraged, and social and economic impact studies should be conducted. These measures will enable Nusa Penida to increase its investment in renewable energy.

Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari, who is the Chairperson of CORE Udayana University, has expressed the importance of answering existing challenges, such as unoptimized and inconsistent regulations, limited investment, underdeveloped human resources, imported technology, and limited accessibility and infrastructure due to the location of Nusa Penida, for the successful implementation of the road map. 

Welcoming Nusa Penida’s roadmap of 100 percent renewable energy, Luh Ketut Ari Citrawati, Assistant for Economy and Development of the Klungkung Regency Government, stated that the Klungkung Regency government has made the concept of sustainable tourism one of its development priorities, including the establishment of Solar PV development areas in the Spatial and Regional Plan of Klungkung Regency.


Download Potential Mapping Presentation for Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

Steps to Achieve Bali’s Net Zero Emission by 2045 and Attain 100 Percent Renewable Energy in Nusa Penida by 2030

Denpasar, February 21, 2024 – Following its declaration in August 2023, the Bali Provincial Government has formulated and executed strategies to pursue Bali’s target of achieving net-zero emissions (NZE) by 2045 and to actualize Nusa Penida as a location powered entirely by renewable energy by 2030. Collaborating with non-governmental partners in the Bali Net Zero Emission Coalition (comprising the Institute for Essential Services Reform, WRI Indonesia, New Energy Nexus Indonesia, and CAST Foundation), a series of initiatives supporting Bali’s NZE 2045 goal have been underway, including the formulation of the Bali NZE 2045 roadmap and the Sustainable Energy Bali public campaign conducted last November 2023.

In the development of the Bali NZE 2045 roadmap, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) conducted an analysis focusing on Nusa Penida’s transition to 100% renewable energy by 2030, effectively transforming it into a renewable energy-based island.

Nusa Penida was selected for this initiative due to three primary factors: its abundant renewable energy potential, its geographical separation from mainland Bali, and the economic opportunities presented by the development of green tourism. Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR, highlighted the significant potential for Nusa Penida to serve as a pilot island for renewable energy and even to supply energy to the rest of Bali. Furthermore, the adoption of renewable energy is expected to enhance Nusa Penida’s appeal to tourists, consequently bolstering the local economy.

“In the IESR study conducted for Nusa Penida, an increase in renewable energy generation would result in lower electricity production costs compared to diesel-powered plants. Presently, the production cost using Diesel Power Plants (PLTD) alone can reach Rp 4.5 thousand/kWh. With 100 percent renewable energy, the production cost can decrease by 30-40 percent,” stated Fabby during the Media Gathering event “100 Percent Renewable Energy in Nusa Penida,” organized by IESR.

Additionally, Fabby disclosed that the initial study for Nusa Penida’s transition to 100 percent renewable energy by 2030 is underway and is scheduled for launch on March 6, 2024. This marks the first step in testing the concept and conducting electricity system planning. Achieving Nusa Penida’s 100 percent renewable energy target by 2030 necessitates support from various stakeholders, including governmental bodies at both central and regional levels, development and non-governmental partners, the private sector, and the community.

According to analyses conducted by IESR and Udayana’s Center of Excellence for Community-Based Renewable Energy (CORE), Nusa Penida boasts a renewable energy potential exceeding 3,219 MW, comprising 3,200 MW of ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PLTS), 11 MW of rooftop solar PV, and 8 MW of biomass, excluding wind energy, ocean currents, and biodiesel potentials. Moreover, to address the variability of renewable energy availability influenced by weather conditions, Nusa Penida exhibits potential for pumped hydroelectric storage (PHES) of up to 22.7 MW. The analysis also underscores the necessity of energy storage systems such as battery energy storage systems (BESS).

IESR’s modeling results indicate that achieving 100 percent renewable energy in Nusa Penida by 2030 primarily relies on solar photovoltaic systems due to their cost-effectiveness and abundance. Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, IESR’s Analyst for Electricity Systems and Renewable Energy, asserted the technical feasibility of a 100 percent renewable energy electricity system for Nusa Penida, capable of generating electricity at lower costs compared to diesel plants. Currently, the roadmap is undergoing finalization following input from various stakeholders.

“The initial phase towards achieving 100 percent renewable energy by 2030 involves transitioning to a diesel daytime-off system, maximizing the utilization of solar and BESS systems during daylight hours,” explained Alvin. “Simultaneously, further studies on alternative energy sources such as biomass production, biodiesel, ocean currents, and wind are necessary. This will enable the harnessing of these potentials to phase out diesel usage by 2030,” Alvin concluded.

Kompas | Public Support is Crucial in Achieving Bali’s Net Zero Emissions 2045 Vision

The Provincial Government of Bali has set a vision to achieve net zero emissions by 2045, known as Bali Net Zero Emissions 2045. Strategies for achieving net zero emissions include enhancing the mix of renewable energy sources. The attainment of the Bali Net Zero Emissions 2045 target requires the support and participation of all stakeholders, including the community

Read more on Kompas.

SE-Bali 2023 Event Invites Balinese People to Success Bali NZE 2045

Bali, November 25, 2023 – The Provincial Government of Bali has launched Bali towards Net Zero Emission 2045 or Bali NZE 2045 in August 2023. Strategy implementation and collaboration with various parties continue to be carried out to achieve the initiative’s target of net zero emissions. Supporting this initiative, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) in collaboration with some communities held Sustainable Energy Bali (SE-Bali) 2023 on Saturday and Sunday, November 25-26, 2023. In addition to promoting the use of renewable energy, the event also aims to encourage togetherness for the achievement of the Bali NZE 2045 target.

Fabby Tumiwa, the Executive Director of IESR, views that the achievement of the Bali NZE 2045 target will affect sustainable economic improvement, particularly in the tourism sector which is the backbone of Bali. He believes that Bali will be able to achieve the NZE target, which is 15 years ahead of the national target.

“There are three reasons that make Bali strategic to achieve this target. First, the Balinese culture is very close to maintaining harmony with nature. Second, the government has the spirit to make Bali sustainable with sustainable energy. Third, renewable energy will make Bali more attractive for tourists to visit along with increasing world awareness to overcome the climate crisis,” said Fabby.

Head of the Bali Manpower and Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) Office, Ida Bagus Setiawan, revealed that achieving Bali NZE 2045 is a joint work. 

“Bali NZE 2045 is not only about the Bali Provincial Government program but also about how we can be involved in protecting Bali’s nature. For this reason, in addition to accelerating the use of renewable energy, the Bali Provincial Government also encourages the improvement of human resources (HR) related to individual understanding of the importance of reducing emissions to increasing the ability of vocational students to be absorbed in green jobs,” said Ida Bagus Setiawan.

Prof. Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari, Chairperson of the Center of Excellence Community of Based Renewable Energy (CORE) Udayana University, mentioned that Nusa Penida became an early area to achieve net zero in the Bali NZE 2045 program, with a target of 100% renewable energy by 2030. One of the concrete steps to support this vision is the operation of a hybrid solar PV in Nusa Penida with a capacity of 3.5 Megawatt peak (MWp). Located on 4.5 hectares of land, the solar PV is a clean and sustainable  energy, and it has the potential to become an attractive ecotourism destination in Bali.

“Achieving the 100% renewable energy target in Nusa Penida is a real step in supporting sustainability and ecosystem balance. We strongly believe that the potential of renewable energy, such as solar, wind, and hydro, can be maximized to achieve environmental sustainability,” explained Prof Ida Ayu.

Bali NZE 2045: Bali’s Commitment for Sustainable Electricity

press release

Bali, August 28, 2023 – The Institute for Essential Services Reform encourages and supports the commitment of the Provincial Government of Bali to achieving the Bali Net Zero Emissions 2045 initiative. As a crucial part of this initiative, the electricity sector in Bali is being decarbonized, which is a strategic step towards achieving Bali’s carbon-neutral goal. This step will significantly reduce the carbon footprint and help preserve Bali’s natural beauty, which is increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

“Bali currently embraces an environmentally conscious low-carbon development plan strategy rooted in the Balinese principle of nangun sat kerthi loka complemented by various regulations that advocate decarbonization. Notably, the Bali Governor’s Regulation on Clean Energy and Battery-Based Electric Motorized Vehicles underscores this commitment. It serves as a cornerstone for Bali to manifest the NZE 2045 vision, fortified by collaborative support. The decarbonization of the electricity sector emerges as a critical facet, considering that the prime contributor to emissions in Bali comes from the energy sector, including electricity,” explained Marlistya Citraningrum, Program Manager for Sustainable Energy Access on Bali Job Fair and Education Expo organized by Department of Manpower and Department of Energy and Mineral Resources of the province of Bali. . 

On the same occasion, a special workshop was also held to garner multi-stakeholder support in achieving Bali NZE 2045. On the inaugural day of the seminar unveiled design for low-carbon regional development and a road map for decarbonizing the Bali electricity system, the second and third days of the workshop focused on preparing reliable resources and sustainable financing for Bali NZE 2045.

“To move towards decarbonization of the electricity sector, there are several strategies that have been actively propelled by IESR, including mapping the technical potential of rooftop solar power plants for government buildings, public facilities, hotels, restaurants and other business entities. The landscape further involves identifying innovative financing schemes for the adoption of renewable energy, market analysis to understand the behavior of potential rooftop solar PV users, including motivation and purchase choices, and analysis of hosting capacity to determine system reliability with large-scale and dispersed penetration of renewable energy,” said Marlistya Citraningrum.

IESR, which has been actively collaborating with the Provincial Government of Bali since 2019, has recorded that the technical potential for renewable energy in Bali is relatively large, reaching 143 GW, including the technical potential for solar PV installed on land of 26 GWp (20% potential) which can be developed with pumped hydroelectric power storage ( pump hydro energy storage, PHES) with a possibility of around 5.8 GWh. Furthermore, in collaborative endeavor, IESR and Udayana University’s Center of Excellence for Community-Based Renewable Energy (CORE)  have identified additional renewable energy potential on Nusa Penida, such as solar, biomass, wind, and biodiesel (CPO, jatropha, seaweed). There are also energy storage possibilities like batteries and pumped-hydro energy storage (seawater). Currently, IESR is partnering with CORE Udayana University for a case study on Nusa Penida towards securing its energy needs with a 100% renewable energy goal. At present, 30% of the energy sources in Nusa Penida come from renewable energy, mainly solar PV with batteries.

Previously, the Provincial Government of Bali had declared the Bali Action Plan Towards Bali Net Zero Emissions 2045, which was supported by the main partners of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia, New Energy Nexus Indonesia. The event was also attended by supporting partners from global and national philanthropic institutions, namely Bloomberg Philanthropies, IKEA Foundation, Sequoia Climate Foundation, ClimateWorks Foundation, Tara Climate Foundation, and Viriya ENB.

About Institute for Essential Services Reform

The Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR) is a think tank organization that actively promotes and strives for the fulfillment of Indonesia’s energy needs, upholding the principles of justice in natural resource utilization and ecological sustainability. IESR engages in activities such as conducting analysis and research, advocating for public policies, launching campaigns on specific topics, and collaborating with diverse organizations and institutions.

About Bali Net Zero Emission 2045

The Bali Net Zero Emissions 2045 Initiative consists of various efforts aimed at low carbon development in Bali through the transition to renewable energy, electric mobility, and climate entrepreneurship, all geared towards achieving Bali Net Zero Emissions by 2045. This initiative encourages collaborative action and work cooperation between the Provincial Government of Bali, various partners, communities, and stakeholders in Bali to accelerate the adoption of clean energy and encourage the active participation of the Balinese people in the low carbon development agenda. The parties involved include international institutions, non-profit organizations, independent research institutions, the private sector, entrepreneurship and start-up businesses, academic institutions, associations, and local communities. The main partners of this initiative are the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), World Resources Institute (WRI) Indonesia, and New Energy Nexus Indonesia.