Kompas | The Inevitability of Oil and Gas Companies in the Midst of the Climate Change Regime

The day before the opening of the 28th Climate Change Conference or COP28 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Thursday (30/11/2023), a press release circulated regarding the resignation of the current President of COP28 this, Sultan Al Jaber, from the position of Chief Executive of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), the UAE’s national oil company.

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Moving to Clean Energy to Tackle Air Pollution in Jabodetabek

Jakarta, October 6, 2023 – Air pollution has been a significant issue faced by the residents of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Banten (collectively known as Jabodetabek) for quite some time now. These unfavorable circumstances require urgent attention and action because environmental pollution in Jakarta can portray Indonesia’s development as harming the environment. Program Manager of Energy Transformation, Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), Deon Arinaldo, mentioned that air pollution impacts human health, causing respiratory diseases, reproductive disorders, cancer, and premature death. According to Deon, who cited data from Our World in Data, fossil energy, particularly coal, is the largest source of air pollution and can lead to premature death. This is indicated by the number of deaths per unit of electricity generated. These deaths include those caused by air pollution and the likelihood of accidents occurring in the supply chain.

“Oil, as well as coal, are not environmentally friendly energy sources. Biomass is a cleaner alternative but has negative impacts when burned, such as producing more particulate matter (PM). On the other hand, wind and solar energy have significantly lower chances of causing air pollution because they mostly rely on infrastructure development,” explained Deon at an Indonesian Ulema Council (MUI) event entitled “Energy Hijrah Movement and Air Pollution Control Discourse” on Friday (6/ 10/2023).

Deon stated that the energy system in Indonesia is still dominated by fossil energy. It is crucial to begin the energy transformation process systematically and as soon as possible in all sectors. According to data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM), Indonesia has a potential of approximately 3,686 GW for renewable energy. By utilizing the abundance of renewable energy, it can be used as the primary source of capital for the energy transition. However, we have yet to optimize this potential fully.

“In the national electricity plan (RUKN), coal-fired power plant capacity will peak in 2030 and decrease according to the planned operating period (natural retirement). Presidential Decree 112/2022 regulates a moratorium on new CFPPs, with exceptions for those already in the pipeline or related to PSN/downstream. Additionally, new CFPPs have a limited operating life until 2050.” said Deon.


Deon highlighted various strategies to mitigate air pollution generated by CFPPs. These strategies include implementing energy-efficient and energy-saving practices, halting the construction of CFPPs and replacing them with clean energy sources, speeding up the closure of existing CFPPs, and enforcing stricter standards for CFPP emissions. Additionally, installing air pollution control devices and monitoring the pollution levels would also help reduce air pollution.

Secretary of the Directorate General of Environmental Pollution and Damage Control (PPKL) KLHK, Tulus Laksono, said that a task force is currently performing strict supervision in various sectors, including industries, which are known to be a significant source of pollution. This task force’s primary responsibility is to identify pollution sources and conduct direct monitoring in the field, provide regional supervision, and ensure coordination. Tulus further added that currently, seven industries are under supervision, 34 are facing administrative sanctions, and eight are being subject to sanctions in Jakarta.


“A major cause of air pollution in Jabodetabek is motor vehicle exhaust, which accounts for 44% of the pollution, followed by coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) at 34%, and the remaining pollution comes from the industrial sector. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has opened an emissions testing service for motor vehicle owners since August 17, 2023, to address this issue. The emissions testing service aims to monitor and control exhaust emissions. On average, around 100-150 motorized vehicles undergo emissions tests at the KLHK office daily, but unfortunately, around 20% per day do not pass the emissions test,” explained Tulus.

Apart from that, Tulus explained, the task force also monitored open burning in 57 locations spread across Jakarta, Depok, South Tangerang, Tangerang Regency, as well as Bogor Regency and City. The activities include burning rubbish, gardens, cables, and charcoal. Prior to the action, monitoring was carried out through 15 air quality monitoring stations spread across the Jabodetabek area. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has urged several companies to transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources to combat air pollution, as per Tulus. Companies like Pertamina Geothermal Energy and Star Energy will work on developing geothermal energy with a capacity of 5,553 GW. In comparison, PLN Nusantara will focus on wind energy with a capacity of 600 GW. Additionally, PT Bukit Asam and PLN Nusantara will work together towards a capacity of 4,930 GW.

“There are still several industries in Jakarta that use coal for their boilers, resulting in approximately 15,741 tons of coal burned each month. However, efforts are being made to encourage an energy transition towards cleaner sources. The DKI Transportation Agency has been working with these industries to promote this transition, and small businesses that still use firewood or coal will be urged to switch to cleaner energy alternatives,” explained Tulus.

IESR Encouraging Community Capacity Building Through the Energy Transition Academy

Fabby Tumiwa

Jakarta, June  23, 2023 – The Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) encourages community capacity building towards an emission-free Indonesia by launching the Energy Transition Academy platform, accessed via the academy.transisienergi.id website. The platform serves as a forum for learning about energy transition and climate change issues connecting with the growing popularity and frequent use of the phrase “energy transition” in public spaces.

The Executive Director of IESR, Fabby Tumiwa explained that the Government of Indonesia had launched a gradual energy transition and would achieve net zero emission (NZE) in 2060 or earlier. Howeverd, based on the IESR study entitled “Deep decarbonization of Indonesia’s energy system: A pathway to zero emissions by 2050” shows that technologically and economically, Indonesia’s energy sector can achieve zero carbon emissions by 2050. The transformation of energy supply and utilization across all energy sectors is crucial to attaining NZE.

“By achieving NZE by2050, Indonesia can generate 3.2 million new jobs in the renewable energy sector. This presents opportunities for economic growth and job growth. Therefore, there is a need to build new capacities, expertise, and skills, considering that the energy transition must bring social and economic benefits. Reflecting on this, the energy transition academy can serve as a means for the community to participate in the energy transition by enhancing insight and capacities,” explained Fabby Tumiwa.

Panel discussion on energy transition platform launching

Irwan Sarifudin, Coordinator of the Clean Energy Hub, IESR, highlighted that through the Energy Transition Academy platform, it is expected that the general public can apply knowledge about energy transition in their daily work. Particularly for Non-Governmental Organizations, by gaining knowledge about the energy transition, can enable them to initiate renewable energy projects, without solely relying on assistance from the central government.

“The Energy Transition Academy platform offers several features that  facilitate learning, distinguishing it from other platforms, such as Synchronous and Asynchronous, Continue Later, As Fast as Your Understanding, Ask Anywhere, Data Sources & Reference, and Tutor Guidance,” said Irwan.

Raditya Wiranegara, IESR Senior Researcher, mentioned the Energy Transition Academy collaborated with various well-known universities and institutions in three phases of module development. In the first phase of the Energy Transition Academy partnered  with ITB, UNS, and ATW Solar, the second phase was collaborated with UI, Swiss German University, ITS, Mongabay, and Tempo, and the third phase was collaborated with UGM, Mataram University, PEC, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources and so on.

“There are several energy transition academy classes with guaranteed quality, including the basics of the energy transition, an introduction to the energy transition roadmap in Indonesia, and rooftop solar power training,” said Raditya.

The launch of the Energy Transition Academy has received positive feedback from various sectors. Khoiria Oktaviani, GERIYA Program Manager at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, explained that the existence of the Energy Transition Academy is expected to provide insight and knowledge related to the energy transition.

“We think there is a gap where college students primarily acquire theoretical knowledge, so after graduation, they often feel a lack of  practical experiences in the field. The limitation of GERILYA lies in the selection, which sometimes results in an even distribution of participants across Indonesia,” said Khoiria.

Irvan S. Kartawiria, Deputy Chancellor of the Swiss German University (SGU), emphasized that the Z and alpha generations are highly concerned about the social impact of the work to be carried out, how work impacts others, and environmental sustainability. For this reason, several universities (including SGU, red) prepare their students to meet these needs.

On the other hand, Efri Ritonga, a TEMPO journalist, stated that this energy transition is highly complex process, not only the change in the energy system from fossil-based energy to clean energy, but is closely related to other sectors,such ass of energy, electricity, battery-based transportation.

“From the journalist’s point of view, it is not easy to understand the issue of the energy transition. The easiest things that directly affect people, such as home energy consumption, electric vehicles, the issue of coal-fired power plants (CFPP) pollution, our need is to understand issues directly grounded in society,” said Efri.

Hadi Priyanto, Climate & Energy Campaigner at Greenpeace, assessed that the government’s Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) commitment is increasingly focused on the energy transition. However, to mainstream the energy transition to society, broader and more massive awareness and more stable regulations from the government are needed.

Muhammad Arman, Legal Consultant Advocate & AMAN Mediator, said the practice of clean energy has long been carried out with local wisdom by indigenous peoples. For example, several villages have implemented energy independence in Sorong, West Papua.

“The principle of the energy transition is inclusive, equitable, and fair. Do not let the energy transition create injustice and lots of piracy. For that, we need an Indigenous Peoples Law to ensure that Indigenous peoples protect the environment,” said Arman.


The Energy Transition Academy launch event was held on Friday (23/6/2023) with two sessions, namely the launch and workshop of the Energy Transition Academy platform. Several students and the general public participated in trying out the Energy Transition Academy platform in the workshop.