Indonesia Needs not only Energy Transition, but The Accelerated One

Jakarta, May 31, 2022 – The geopolitical conflicts that have occurred in the last few months have affected a number of global situations, one of which is the condition of energy supply. European Union countries that feel the impact of the disruption in energy supply have begun to look for various alternatives, both in the short and long term. As a long-term solution, the European Union issued a new energy policy entitled “REpower EU”. Under this policy, the European Union plans to increase its renewable energy capacity to 740 GWdc by 2030 to reduce their dependence on Russia’s fossil energy and ensure its energy security.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR, at the MGN Media Summit on Tuesday, May 31, 2022, stated that the current global geopolitical situation is indeed not favorable for the energy transition not only in Indonesia but in various countries in the world. However, after several months of ongoing geopolitical tensions, a number of countries have begun to use this momentum to break away from dependence on fossil energy and accelerate their renewable energy. Indonesia should also be able to do the same thing for instance by ensuring that the regulations made to support the acceleration of renewable energy such as the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Decree number 26/2021 are implemented.

“The weakness of this country is that the plan has been made but its implementation and enforcement is still weak, for example the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation 26/2021 regarding rooftop PV,” Fabby explained.

Fabby explained that the MEMR Ministerial Regulation number 26/2021 had not yet been implemented by PLN because several issues were still hampered, one of which was the Ministry of Finance’s compensation for PLN, whose regulations had not yet been made.

“Then maybe the DPR RI can summon the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources to explain the situation and ask them to immediately design a compensation scheme for PLN,” he added.

The energy transition situation in Indonesia itself is not very encouraging. Having a renewables mix target of 23% in 2025, data from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources in February 2022 shows that the target has only been achieved around 11.5%. Sugeng Suparwoto, Chairman of Commission VII DPR RI which handles energy, admitted that it was difficult to pursue the renewable energy mix target, but that did not mean it was impossible.

“I have to admit this is hard, but with our extra hard work together, I am still optimistic that we can achieve it,” explained Sugeng.

PLN as a key actor, especially in accelerating renewable energy, stated that apart from providing energy, the demand side for energy must also be ensured.

“We also need to ensure that the demand for renewable energy is available. PLN itself will rely heavily on existing technology to pursue net-zero emission (NZE) and energy mix targets,” Cita Dewi, EVP Planning & Engineering for EBT at PT PLN (Persero), explained.

Cita added that his party cannot work alone to execute the acceleration of renewable energy on its own. It takes collaboration of various parties to ensure this energy transition runs.

Daniel Purba, Senior Vice President, Strategy & Investment, PT Pertamina (Persero) stated that our fossil reserves are not as large as they used to be. In terms of consumption, even though at this time fossils still dominate, in the future it will definitely change.

“Even though now, for example, fuel dominates people’s consumption, in the future electric vehicles and alternative fuels such as hydrogen will be widely used,” he said.

With this phenomenon, corporations have a need to diversify and even transform their business so that the company can be sustainable, and gain the trust of both investors and consumers.

“Pertamina itself has started to diversify its business by starting to develop hydrogen and using solar power in our operational offices,” added Daniel.

Highlighting energy policy in Indonesia, Djoko Siswanto, Secretary General of the National Energy Council, stated that Indonesia has quite complete policy instruments, starting from road maps, targets, and plans. However, according to him, it is important to measure whether we are on the right path of the various policy instruments that exist in Indonesia and if Indonesia energy security is resilient.

“Various policy schemes that currently exist put our energy security index in the ‘resistant’ category. We haven’t been able to reach the ‘very resilient’ category because of several things, including our energy (oil) imports are still high, our energy infrastructure (grid) still needs to be improved, and our NRE mix is ​​still low,” Djoko explained.

Djoko added that the government needs to resolve these issues to ensure Indonesia’s energy security and to reduce GHG emissions from the energy sector. In this way, Indonesia’s commitments to various international agreements are fulfilled.

C20 Indonesia Urge for a Just Energy Transition

Jakarta, 30 June 2022 – Energy transition is one of the priority issues of Indonesia’s 2022 G20 presidency. This role as the leader of the G20 countries is certainly a strategic momentum for Indonesia to show its commitment to the energy transition. The Paris Agreement in 2015 agreed to limit the earth’s temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius, even trying to keep it at the level of 1.5 degrees. For this reason, all parties must reduce their emissions from high-emission sectors such as energy and achieve carbon neutral status by the middle of this century.

To explore various perspectives on energy transition, the Civil 20 engagement group held a workshop entitled “Making a Just Energy Transition for All” inviting other engagement groups i.e: Think 20 (T20), Science 20 (S20) and Business 20 (B20). Also present as a panelist, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, former governor of Indonesia for OPEC.

From the ongoing discussion, all the speakers agreed to put the human aspect as the axis of the energy transition. Vivian Sunwoo Lee, International Coordinator of C20, said that C20 continues to urge the importance of immediately shifting from fossil-based energy systems to renewable energy-based energy systems.

“There are a number of risks, especially from a financial and economic perspective, from fossil energy infrastructure that has the potential to become a stranded asset if we don’t hurry to make the energy transition,” he said. Vivian also highlighted the large fossil energy subsidies that are still being provided by the G20 countries.

Professor Yunita Winarto, co-chair of Task Force 5 S20 stated the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in planning and implementing energy transitions.

“The interdisciplinary approach will shift the paradigm from exploitative-extractive to environmentally friendly-resilient, from a linear economy to a circular economy, and from good governance to proper governance. That way, a balance will undoubtedly be created according to the principles of the planet, people, & prosperity for all,” Yunita explained.

Moekti H. Soejachmoen, Lead co-chair of Task Force 3 T20, explained the importance of the carbon economic value instrument in the context of energy transition.

“The growth in energy demand will definitely continue to grow. It is inevitable, so we have to look for various ways to fulfill this energy need, but on the other hand our need to reduce emissions is also achieved. So this carbon economic value instrument is important,” explained Moekti.

Moekti also added that it was important for Indonesia to ensure that the issues pushed in this year’s G20 presidency would still be discussed in the following years. Given the energy transition is a long process and takes years.

The energy transition will completely change the face of Indonesia’s energy sector. Oki Muraza, Policy Manager of the Task Force Energy Sustainability and Climate, B20, explained that the affordability factor should be one of the main considerations in making the energy transition.

“We have to ensure that the affordability factor of energy during this transition process can be maintained. In addition, we also need to pay attention to people who are currently working in the hydrocarbon sector, how they can be trained so they don’t lose their jobs in the energy transition,” explained Oki.

Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja reminded that it is necessary to harmonize perceptions, rules and policies at the ministry level related to energy transition and the achievement of Indonesia’s commitments in the international level such as NDC. This is in addition to accelerating the achievement of national and international targets, as well as to give the same signal to investors.

“If the signals sent to investors are mixed, the perception of investors is that the risk of investing in Indonesia is high, and it is not impossible to make them reconsider investing,” said Widhyawan.

Indonesia Needs Inter-island Electricity Interconnection for 100 Percent Renewable Energy Development

Jakarta, 26 January 2022 – The energy sector which is dominated by fossil energy accounts for ⅔ of global emissions. In order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions exponentially, massive use of renewable energy is an important thing to do. One of the efforts to empower 100 percent of the technical potential of renewable energy, which is widely spread across all provinces in Indonesia, is the construction of an interconnection of the archipelago’s electricity network. 

Jisman Hutajulu, Director of Electricity Program Development at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in the HK Experts webinar (26/1/2022), stated that the government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources has plans to connect the grid system between islands in Indonesia.

“This is to support the 2060 net-zero emission plan. One of the things we want to encourage is the use of NRE, but many NRE sources are far from the many demand sources in Java. So we have to transmit that energy to our load center,” Jisman explained.

Jisman said that his party encouraged PLN to complete interconnections within major islands in Indonesia, which is expected to be fully completed in 2024, later to be connected between islands gradually.

Jisman admits that building this transmission system takes a lot of investment. So the ministry is making a study about priority, to analyze and determine which transmission will be built first. Furthermore, Jisman also mentioned the potential inclusion of this transmission development plan in the Problem Inventory Draft (DIM) of the NRE Bill to ensure the priority of the work.

On the same occasion, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR, believes that this interconnection system should be seen as an investment, not a burden from the choice of shifting to clean energy.

“According to IESR, Indonesia has abundant renewable energy potential. For solar alone, the potential can reach 7,700 GW with the largest potential based on land suitability, located in East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and South Kalimantan,” said Fabby. 

Fabby also revealed that the initial investment needed for grid interconnection development until 2030 is still relatively small, around USD 3.3 billion because there is no inter-island integration yet. However, the required investment will increase in 2040 and 2050, respectively at USD 34.8 billion and USD 53.9 billion.

Other benefits that Indonesia can enjoy from inter-island grid interconnection include increased reliability and concentrated power reserves.

“For instance, excessive power reserves in Sumatra can be sent to Bangka, and vice versa,” said Fabby.

In addition, an integrated inter-island network can reduce investment requirements for developing new power generation. According to him again, the interconnection of the grid will create a diversity of generation mix and supply security, which is different from fossil energy systems that only come from one energy source. Furthermore, Fabby explained that if this interconnection system is already running, the cost of generating renewable energy will decrease by 18% – 46% by 2030. 

Overseeing the Indonesia Government’s Strategy in Energy Transition in 2022

press release

Jakarta, 18 January 2022 Entering 2022, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources shared Indonesia’s energy transition strategy in the “Press Conference on 2021 Performance Achievements and the 2022 Work Plan for Energy and Mineral Resources and the EBTKE Subsector”. The Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) views that even though the direction of the energy transition is becoming more evident, it is crucial to speed up the energy transition to reduce GHG emissions and align with Paris Agreement pathways to limit the earth temperature well below 1.5 degree Celsius. Moreover, some overlapping strategies need to develop in a more focused roadmap, such as Dimethyl Ether (DME) utilization, gas grids, and induction cooktops to meet household energy needs.

In the 2021-2030 Energy Transition Roadmap, the government focuses on new and renewable energy power plants’ construction which reach 20.9 GW, while the solar rooftop is targeted at 3.6 GW. The solar rooftop construction will be massive in 2031-2050 with a total amount of 279.2 GW.

Based on the IESR study entitled “Deep Decarbonization of Indonesia’s Energy System”, the construction of renewable energy power plants should be accelerated in the 2021-2030 period to achieve the renewable energy mix target, and reach peak emissions in the electricity sector before 2030. In addition, there is a need for at least a 14-fold increase in the total renewable energy capacity in 2020, with around 117 GW coming from solar rooftops and 23 GW from other renewable energy plants.

The government’s report on the achievement of new and renewable energy power generation capacity until 2021 reaches 11,152 MW. Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR, feels that the target for adding renewable energy generating capacity has always been below the government’s target since 2019 and is not on track with the renewable energy mix target of 24 GW by 2025.

“The reasons for the low obtainment of renewable energy plants are structural. For instance, the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 50/2017 makes renewable energy projects unbankable, PLN does not carry out the regular and on schedule basis of the procurement of renewable energy plants, the lack of competitive domestic financing support, and the delay in project realization due to the pandemic,” said Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director IESR.

Highlighting the investment target for the new and renewable energy sector in 2022, the government has set an investment entry of USD 3.9 billion, up 2.6 times from the previous investment achievement of USD 1.51 billion in 2021. Deon Arinaldo, Program Manager of Energy Transformation, IESR, thought that although the target has almost tripled, it is a small amount to fund efforts to decarbonize Indonesia’s energy system.

“Based on the study of the Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook 2022, investment in renewable energy for the electricity sector alone requires  11.1 billion USD per year for the next decade. Several renewable energy policies and regulations that should have been released last year, need to be finalized immediately to increase investor confidence and the renewable energy investment climate. Renewable energy investments outside of PLN’s RUPTL (National Electricity Supply Business Plan), such as solar rooftop, also need to be fully supported to attract investment from the beginning of this year, “added Deon.

Furthermore, the government’s strategy to maintain fossil energy subsidies will slow down the pace of energy transition in Indonesia. As well as increasing the burden on the state, it is also an easy trap for Indonesia to get into the fossil energy crisis.

“Reflecting on the coal energy crisis earlier this year, it can be seen that the use of fossil energy such as coal and subsidized support (in the form of DMO) also does not guarantee the country’s energy security, but instead creates distortions in the price of electricity generation. The price of electricity generation from coal-fired power plants looks cheaper than it should be and does not create a level playing field for renewable energy,” said Deon.

The government’s strategy to accelerate the national energy transition is constrained by the fact that the Minister of Finance has not yet approved the Draft Presidential Decree for the Purchase of Renewable Energy. Deon believes that there needs to be strategic coordination between ministries to support the acceleration of achieving the carbon-neutral target so that regulatory support that is considered critical should be issued immediately and run effectively.

“Apart from issuing regulations, effective implementation is important, but this is the opposite. For example, Ministerial Regulation 26/2021 regarding rooftop solar power plants, which should be able to support the achievement of the 900 MW rooftop solar power plant target in 2022 according to the MEMR target, however, was delayed earlier this year,” said Deon.

Besides the regulatory perspective, IESR sees the synergy of inter-ministerial carbon neutral targets as important. Reviewing the targets and realization of electric vehicles in 2022, the Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook 2022 found two different targets in the two ministries. The Ministry of Industry plans to produce 750,000 units of LCEV (low carbon emission vehicle), consisting of electric cars and 2.45 million units of electric motorcycles by 2030. Meanwhile, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) targets 2 million cars, electric vehicles and 13 million electric motorcycles by 2030. Different targets and roadmaps in the development of electric vehicles will make it difficult to see a coherent and consistent effort by the government to increase the penetration of electric vehicles in the country.

“An integrated and well-designed national electric vehicle roadmap must be created. Alignment between the electric vehicle (EV) roadmap of the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, for example, will increase the confidence of EV players. It also will maximize economic benefits for Indonesia in the form of an industrial value chain formed from the transition process from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to EVs,” closed Deon.

Showing Commitment, Indonesia is Ready for Early Retirement of Coal Power Plants

Throughout 2021, responding to the global demand for climate action to align with the Paris Agreement, Indonesia has updated several documents such as the NDC which targets carbon neutrality by 2060 or earlier and released the ‘green’ RUPTL which is claimed to provide more space for renewable energy. Recently, Indonesia stated that assessment about the opportunity to retire coal-fired power plants early will be conducted. Although it is not yet ambitious to comply with the Paris Agreement targets, Indonesia’s decision should be appreciated and its implementation carefully looked after.

Indonesian Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Arifin Tasrif, at the COP-26 Climate Change Summit, signed the Global Coal to Clean Power Statement declaration. The Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources approved 3 of the 4 points of the declaration, i.e (1) encouraging the development of renewable energy & energy efficiency; (2) Phasing-out coal in the 2040s; and (3) strengthening domestic and international efforts to support a just energy transition.

Arifin explained that Indonesia is currently conducting a simulation to retire PLTU of 9.2 GW before 2030. A total of 3.7 GW of the 9.2 GW of power plants will retire early and be replaced with renewable energy power plants. This progressive plan demands a comprehensive roadmap for the coal transition.

Met separately, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR emphasized that the transition to leaving coal in Indonesia needs to be carefully prepared.

According to him, a comprehensive coal transition roadmap needs to be prepared to ensure that the transition that occurs is a transition that takes into account the needs of all parties involved and affected by the abandonment of coal for energy supply, and ensures that everyone has access to reliable and affordable energy.

In the event “From Coal to Renewables: the Energy Transition in Emerging Markets” organized by Accenture in the COP-26 series in Glasgow, Fabby Tumiwa explained, as one of the largest coal producers in the world, 60% of Indonesia’s coal is destined for export. Another important thing to note is that 85% of Indonesia’s coal production is only concentrated in 4 provinces.

“Coal’s role in Indonesia is not only as income for the state, but also as basic income for coal-producing provinces. When there is a transition, and coal will slowly be abandoned, these areas need to be considered because otherwise they will be in danger of collapsing,” explained Fabby.

As a country that relies heavily on fossil energy and with a fairly complex situation, the government’s openness to decarbonization by 2060 or earlier is seen as a step forward and achievable by Fabby Tumiwa.

“86% of electricity in Indonesia is generated by coal-fired power plants. Making the transition to renewable energy in this situation is certainly not easy. But that doesn’t mean it’s impossible,” said Fabby. 

COP26: A “Soundless” Recital by Jokowi

Many parties are waiting for President Joko Widodo’s speech at COP26. Jokowi is expected to declare more ambitious commitments to reduce emissions and deal with climate change as well as to outline concrete steps towards net-zero emissions. Indonesia’s strategic position as the leader of the G20 countries in 2022 should make Indonesia take one step ahead to lead efforts to reduce emissions for G20 member countries.

Unfortunately, in his speech at the High Level Segment for Heads of State and Government COP26 session, President Jokowi did not announce a higher climate ambition target nor a concrete commitment to support the Paris Agreement target to limit the increase in the average temperature of the earth below 1.5 degrees Celsius and achieve carbon neutral by the middle of the century. The IPCC AR6 report has stated clearly that we have less than a decade left to keep the earth’s temperature rise at 1.5 degrees Celsius. The opportunity to increase Indonesia’s climate ambitions is still open and of course the Government must take it and make the best use of it to save the earth from the damage caused by climate change.

Efforts to reduce emissions and address climate change must be seen as both a responsibility and an opportunity to transform Indonesia’s economic system from a carbon-intensive one to a more sustainable low-carbon economic system. According to the IESR Deep Decarbonization study, the transformation of the energy system will create 3.2 million new jobs in the renewable energy sector. An ambitious commitment by setting targets for reducing ambitions that are larger than the current NDC and building a comprehensive energy transition roadmap will send a good signal for investors to invest in Indonesia. This will encourage Indonesia’s economic strength to become more globally competitive.

Previously at the G20 Summit which took place on October 30-31 2021, the leaders of the G20 countries agreed to achieve net-zero emissions by the mid of this century. However, this commitment has not yet been accompanied by a target for the phase-out of coal-fired power plants. Holding a strategic role in the G20 leadership, Jokowi could actually take the opportunity to encourage G20 countries to stop operating coal-fired power plants and switch to renewable energy. Of course, in this case, Indonesia also needs to implement a policy of abandoning coal so that it can set an example for other G20 countries.

In addition, there is a difference between actions and facts on the ground in Jokowi’s speech at COP 26. He mentioned that he would build the largest PLTS in Southeast Asia and encourage the use of renewable energy to reduce emissions in the energy sector. However, until COP 26 took place, supportive policy support for the PV mini-grid ecosystem, such as the Revised Regulation of Ministerial Regulation 49/2018 concerning the Use of Rooftop Solar Power Generation Systems by Consumers of PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) as well as Presidential Regulations concerning new and renewable energy, had not been officially issued.

More ambitious climate action is urgently needed now as the effects of climate change are becoming more frequent as La Nina returns. The Climate Transparency report 2021 states that changes in La Nina and El Nino patterns will have an impact on the onset and duration of the rainy season in Indonesia. This affects the agricultural sector such as rice production. The World Bank’s global risk analysis places Indonesia in the twelfth of 35 countries that face a relatively high risk of death from exposure to floods and extreme heat. Ranked as the fifth country with a population that lives in areas lower than the coastal zone, Indonesia is also vulnerable to sea-level rise.

Indonesia is able to make a significant contribution to tackling climate change and preventing worse impacts from the climate crisis. Utilizing vast forests as carbon sinks, having renewable energy potential reaching 7879.4 GW, and playing a strategic role in the G20 Indonesia should be able to achieve and exceed the current NDC target of reducing emissions by 29% on its own and up to 41% with international support from business as usual in 2030. By doing this, Indonesia will not only save the environment but also transform the economic system, as well as demonstrate leadership innovation to the members of the G20 countries.

COP 26, Indonesia Has No Ambitious Climate Action Breakthrough

Jakarta, 03 November – President Joko Widodo at the 26th World Leaders Summit on Climate Change or COP-26 did not announce a firm statement about increasing Indonesia’s climate ambitions. The Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) views that the Indonesian government should be using this moment to lead and encourage the G20 countries to set compatible climate action with the Paris Agreement. However, in his speech at COP 26, President Jokowi seemed to hand over the responsibility to developed countries to determine the achievement of carbon neutral conditions in Indonesia. It showed the less ambitious state of the Indonesian government in dealing with the climate crisis.

“Indonesia should clearly state its climate ambitions, increase its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets and convey the funding needs from developed countries to achieve peak emissions by 2030 and decarbonization by 2060 or earlier. Unfortunately, the President did not state targets and plans for more ambitious mitigation actions in his speech,” said Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR. He is also currently in Glasgow attending the COP 26 event.

The Climate Transparency Report, Country Profile of Indonesia 2021 finds that staying in the current NDC unconditional reduction target of 29%  will contribute to increased emissions (excluding the emissions from land use) to 535% above 1990 levels, or around 1,817 MtCO2e in 2030. Meanwhile, to stay below the 1.5˚C temperature limit, Indonesia’s 2030 emissions should be around 461 MtCO2e (or 61% above 1990 levels). This indicates an ambition gap of 1,168 MtCO2e.

“As a country that has quite large natural and mineral resources, such as nickel, Indonesia can raise its climate ambitions beyond the target of 29% by 2030. Moreover, if Indonesia with a large population has implemented energy conservation and efficiency since earlier, without the funds from a developed country, Indonesia can reduce carbon greater than the target in the NDC,” explained Lisa Wijayani, Manager of the Green Economy Program, IESR.

Furthermore, IESR observes that Indonesia’s plan, which was stated by Jokowi on the same occasion, to transition to clean energy is still constrained by regulations that have not yet been issued. Jokowi proposed to build the largest solar PV in Southeast Asia, but until today the Regulation of Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 26/2021 Regarding Rooftop Solar Power Plants is still waiting for approval at the Ministry of Finance. Besides, the Presidential Regulation regarding new and renewable energy, which has been awaited since early 2021, has not yet been released.

“The Indonesian government should simultaneously issue appropriate regulations to create a more massive renewable energy ecosystem for development, as well as encourage investment from developed countries. Clear regulations and targets can open up greater opportunities for investors to invest in renewable energy,” added Lisa.

Not only that, but in his attention, Jokowi also plays an important role in carbon markets and prices in solving climate problems. This October, the government has issued the Law on Harmonization of Tax Regulations. A carbon tax of IDR 30 per kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent will be applied to the number of emissions that exceed the stipulated emission limits (cap and tax).

“The determination of the carbon tax price at IDR 30 per kg (USD 2 per ton) is still very far from the recommendations of the World Bank and IMF which set the carbon tax price for developing countries to be in the range of USD 35-100t/CO2e. Even the IPCC report explains that the carbon tax rate in 2020 is in the range of US$ 40-80/tCO2. With a small carbon tax rate, the government’s goal to reduce carbon emissions significantly through this carbon tax will not be achieved,” said Lisa.

Towards COP 26, Community Leaders Demand Climate Emergency Declaration

Jakarta, 19 October 2021Indonesia has updated its climate commitments through its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 or sooner. Indonesia’s commitment which is ten years behind the target of the Paris Agreement implies the government’s unambitious efforts in responding to the climate crisis that threatens the lives of the Indonesian people.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) said that the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) should not be seen as a burden but as an opportunity to transform into a low carbon economy.

“Based on our study entitled Deep decarbonization of Indonesia’s energy system, deep decarbonization of the energy system in 2050 will bring greater economic benefits,” said Fabby in the webinar “Towards COP 26: Climate change and the role of the society to preserve the earth” held by IESR (19/10/2021).

Fabby added that the community will feel the economic benefits by the creation of new industrial opportunities that can absorb a larger workforce. Moreover, Indonesia’s energy prices will be more affordable by using cheaper renewable energy technologies and cleaner air. He said that the compatible climate ambitions with the Paris Agreement will lessen the threat of hydrometeorological disasters as a consequence of increasing the earth’s temperature exceeding 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Highlighting policies and the level of public literacy on the climate crisis, community leaders in the event stated that unintegrated climate-related policies and the lack of access to climate change information make the climate change mitigation efforts in Indonesia keep decelerating.

The absence of a climate emergency declaration by the government, according to Melissa Kowara, Activist, Extinction Rebellion Indonesia, indicates the government’s low level of seriousness in dealing with the climate crisis.

“There has not been a firm stance from the highest levels of the country to say that we are in a crisis. (There is no declaration that says-ed) that we will do everything by the private sector, civil society, and government to overcome problems that affect the lives and survival of all of us,” said Melissa. She said this is also the cause of low public literacy regarding climate change.

Muhammad Ali Yusuf, Chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama Disaster Management and Climate Change Institute (LPBI NU), Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), also revealed that religious discourse in Indonesia itself is still far from ecological issues or climate change.

“Even if there is (climate discourse-ed), yet it is not the top priority issue. Therefore, climate change literacy is also necessary for religious leaders because religious life is impossible to prevail in the climate crisis,” he explained.

Furthermore, Jimmy Sormin, Executive Secretary for Witness and Integrity of Creation, Communion of Churches in Indonesia (PGI), encouraged religious leaders to play their role in increasing people’s understanding of climate issues by discussing them according to the local context.

“In the regions, the impacts of climate change, such as the emergence of new pests, crop failure, are experienced by the community, but they do not understand it. It is necessary to ‘rationalize’ it according to their perspective (the local community-ed),” said Jimmy.

Looking at the issue of climate change from a woman’s perspective, Mike Verawati Tangka, Secretary-General, Indonesian Women’s Coalition (KPI) believes that the climate change effect has a close impact on women’s lives. However, Mike regrets that environmental issues and change tend to be considered as masculine issues that override the role of women in caring for nature and advocating for climate issues.

“The impact of climate change is perceived the most laborious by women because our policies and systems are not prepared inclusively. Positive initiatives taken by women by advocating for climate change must also be recognized by the state,” said Mike

Indonesia Can Achieve Net Zero Emission Before 2070

Jakarta, 28 April 2021 — President Joko Widodo’s speech during the Leader Summit on Climate Change which stated that he would seriously tackle the issue of the climate crisis was considered less ambitious by a number of parties. This is because President Jokowi’s statement emphasizes the FOLU sector (Forestry and Land use Conversion), while the energy sector, which will be the largest contributor to emissions in the future, was not even mentioned at all. Meanwhile, on the same occasion, a number of country leaders expressed their commitment to reduce emissions and their target to be carbon neutral. Indonesia through the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has released a 2050 Long-term Strategy on Low Carbon and Climate Resilience (LTS-LCCR) which targets that Indonesia will become carbon neutral by 2070. Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) ) views this target as less ambitious and shows the government’s half-hearted efforts in dealing with the climate crisis.

Responding to this, IESR continues the discussion series #Before2070 to see Indonesia’s opportunities to achieve carbon neutrality by 2070. This webinar is the second part of a series of #Before2070 webinars aimed to encourage the government to make more ambitious climate policy targets. Indonesia’s target to become carbon neutral by 2070 is considered inconsistent with the Paris Agreement commitment that was signed by Indonesia in 2015 and ratified by Law no. 16 of 2016.

Preparing a Long-Term Strategy towards being carbon neutral by 2050 is the obligation of each country that signs the Paris Agreement. However, the LTS-LCCR 2050 document that is owned by the government has become a debate and has caused controversy even among the government itself. This can be seen from the inconsistency of documents and explanations between government agencies regarding Indonesia’s carbon-neutral targets.

For example, the Ministry of Bappenas previously explained about Low Carbon Development in Indonesia (LCDI) which offered several scenarios if Indonesia became carbon neutral in 2045, 2050, 2060, or 2070 and its implication to Indonesian economic growth.

“Climate commitments must be integrated with national development programs. Indonesia’s commitment to achieve net zero-emission has been stated in the RPJMN, ”explained Medrilzam, Director of Environment at Bappenas. He also emphasized that there should be no trade-off between economic growth and efforts to reduce emissions. According to him, achieving carbon-neutral requires a lot of funds. Therefore, apart from cooperation and multi-stakeholder commitment, Indonesia needs to receive strong support from international countries.

From the energy sector, Agus Cahyono Adi, Head of the Center for Data and Information at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, said that his party is preparing to support Indonesia in achieving net-zero emission to meet energy needs with various efforts.

“The energy sector is an important sector in the net-zero emission plan because we are one of the emission contributors. In addition to reducing emissions, we are also trying to increase energy demand. Increasing renewable energy and the use of clean fuels play an important role in increasing energy demand, “said Agus.

However, his party has not dared to announce a target figure or deadline to become carbon neutral from the energy sector.

“For each choice that we will take, we need to consider the aspects of availability, accessibility and affordability,” he explained.

To achieve carbon neutrality, more innovative efforts are needed, especially through developing an investment climate such as carbon trading. Kus Prisetiahadi, Assistant Deputy for Climate Change and Disaster Management, Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs and Investment (Kemenko Marves) explained that currently the Presidential Decree for the value of the carbon economy is a guideline for GHG emission reduction and low-carbon national development is still being drafted. There are at least 8 regulatory components in this Presidential Decree and the marine sector is one of the sectors that will be developed for efforts towards mitigation.

Dian Afriyanie, Lokahita senior researcher, highlighted the lack of integration across sectors and scales in policymaking. This results in policy products that often feel out of sync between one ministry/agency and another ministry/institution. 

Furthermore, Eka Melissa, Senior Advisor of The Partnership for Governance Reform, emphasized that low-carbon development should be seen as an opportunity to develop the country, be environmentally friendly while meeting the targets of international agreements.

“I see that Bappenas has seen it (as an opportunity) but other ministries seem to still see it as a proven challenge from the various documents produced. Low carbon development is still seen as an obstacle and a challenge,” she said.

Synchronization of this point of view must first of all be carried out so that the policy produced by each institution leads to the same estuary. If the point of view of each institution on an issue is different, then the final outcome of the policy will definitely not go in the same direction.

The role of local government is considered very important in achieving carbon-neutral development. Andy Simarmata, Chair of the Indonesian Planning Experts Association (IAP) gave a view that the government and other relevant stakeholders can campaign for carbon neutrality down to the regional level so that it can be translated into the RPJMD (regional medium-term development planning). Incentives for the business world, especially the pattern of business behavior, also need to be provided in addition to encouraging the technology.

For climate commitments, especially targets to be carbon neutral, each related party needs to see the current climate situation as a crisis that requires a quick and precise coping strategy. The more we postpone dealing with the climate crisis, the greater the costs and the heavier the efforts that must be made in the future.