C20 Indonesia Urge for a Just Energy Transition

Jakarta, 30 June 2022 – Energy transition is one of the priority issues of Indonesia’s 2022 G20 presidency. This role as the leader of the G20 countries is certainly a strategic momentum for Indonesia to show its commitment to the energy transition. The Paris Agreement in 2015 agreed to limit the earth’s temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius, even trying to keep it at the level of 1.5 degrees. For this reason, all parties must reduce their emissions from high-emission sectors such as energy and achieve carbon neutral status by the middle of this century.

To explore various perspectives on energy transition, the Civil 20 engagement group held a workshop entitled “Making a Just Energy Transition for All” inviting other engagement groups i.e: Think 20 (T20), Science 20 (S20) and Business 20 (B20). Also present as a panelist, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, former governor of Indonesia for OPEC.

From the ongoing discussion, all the speakers agreed to put the human aspect as the axis of the energy transition. Vivian Sunwoo Lee, International Coordinator of C20, said that C20 continues to urge the importance of immediately shifting from fossil-based energy systems to renewable energy-based energy systems.

“There are a number of risks, especially from a financial and economic perspective, from fossil energy infrastructure that has the potential to become a stranded asset if we don’t hurry to make the energy transition,” he said. Vivian also highlighted the large fossil energy subsidies that are still being provided by the G20 countries.

Professor Yunita Winarto, co-chair of Task Force 5 S20 stated the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in planning and implementing energy transitions.

“The interdisciplinary approach will shift the paradigm from exploitative-extractive to environmentally friendly-resilient, from a linear economy to a circular economy, and from good governance to proper governance. That way, a balance will undoubtedly be created according to the principles of the planet, people, & prosperity for all,” Yunita explained.

Moekti H. Soejachmoen, Lead co-chair of Task Force 3 T20, explained the importance of the carbon economic value instrument in the context of energy transition.

“The growth in energy demand will definitely continue to grow. It is inevitable, so we have to look for various ways to fulfill this energy need, but on the other hand our need to reduce emissions is also achieved. So this carbon economic value instrument is important,” explained Moekti.

Moekti also added that it was important for Indonesia to ensure that the issues pushed in this year’s G20 presidency would still be discussed in the following years. Given the energy transition is a long process and takes years.

The energy transition will completely change the face of Indonesia’s energy sector. Oki Muraza, Policy Manager of the Task Force Energy Sustainability and Climate, B20, explained that the affordability factor should be one of the main considerations in making the energy transition.

“We have to ensure that the affordability factor of energy during this transition process can be maintained. In addition, we also need to pay attention to people who are currently working in the hydrocarbon sector, how they can be trained so they don’t lose their jobs in the energy transition,” explained Oki.

Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja reminded that it is necessary to harmonize perceptions, rules and policies at the ministry level related to energy transition and the achievement of Indonesia’s commitments in the international level such as NDC. This is in addition to accelerating the achievement of national and international targets, as well as to give the same signal to investors.

“If the signals sent to investors are mixed, the perception of investors is that the risk of investing in Indonesia is high, and it is not impossible to make them reconsider investing,” said Widhyawan.

South Korea Supports Indonesia to Reach Its Renewable Energy Target

Jakarta, 19 May 2022 Renewable energy is seen as a quick win to secure a global temperature rise of no more than 2 degrees Celsius, according to the Paris Agreement. Indonesia whose emission reduction targets 29% on self-effort and 41% by international assistance by 2030 is actively seeking a more effective way to secure its target. The remaining time to achieve the target is only around 8 years. Yayan Mulyana from the Foreign Policy Strategy Agency of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Indonesia admitted that it’s hard but Indonesia is optimistic to achieve it.

Gandi Sulistiyanto, Indonesian Ambassador for South Korea, during his keynote speech in the webinar “Enhancing Investments from South Korea for Renewable Energy Development in Indonesia” hosted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic Indonesia on Thursday, 19 May 2022, said that both countries develop momentum and mutual interest in renewable energy investment. 

“Indonesia embassy in Seoul ready to support the Government’s target to have 23% of renewables in 2025. Meanwhile, South Korea aims to have 35% renewable shares in 2040. Both countries are in intense communications to develop EV battery manufacturers to support EV ecosystems that start penetrating the Indonesia market,” Gandhi said.

He added that in accordance with sustainability and human development, his office focuses on four sectors i.e: human development, science and technology, sustainable finance development, and national energy security.

Fabby Tumiwa, the Executive Director of IESR said that energy transformation is the heart of climate change mitigation. 

“Energy consumption in Indonesia is projected to increase 7-8 times than the current rate as a consequence of massive electrification of transportation and other home appliances, we have a double consequence of the situation i.e to replace the current fossil energy with renewable and to fulfill the growing demand at the same time,” he said.

Indonesia’s LTS LCCR document projects that there will be rapid emission reduction after 2030 if power generation is supplied by renewable 43% by 2050. It tries to be translated into the current PLN’s RUPTL that shows the government’s eagerness to deploy more renewable energy in the power sector in Indonesia. A study has shown that Indonesia is technically feasible and economically viable to achieve zero emissions by 2050 using 100% renewable energy. 

“IESR Deep decarbonization of Indonesia’s energy system study presents a step by step roadmap to achieve net zero in 2050 covering transportation, power sector, and industry,” Fabby added. 

Solar, whose residential potential – reaches up to 655 GWp will be the backbone of the renewable-based energy system.

Minho Kim, Komipo Korea State-Owned Company said that as a businessman, his company sees Indonesia as a potential market as well as a partner for renewable energy considering the abundant resources available. 

“Komipo already has operations in Indonesia for geothermal and hydropower projects. Later on, we plan to develop green hydrogen/ammonia as well,” Minho said.

Minho added that the emergence of the carbon market makes renewables a new hot commodity because it is needed. “As more companies join the RE 100 initiatives, the demand for clean energy is higher, therefore providing clean energy is no longer an option but a must as it is what is needed by the industry and demanded by customers,” he concluded.

Indonesia’s Energy Transition Overshadowed by Government Uncertainty

Jakarta, December 21, 2021 – Closing 2021, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) has launched its annual report entitled Indonesia Energy Transition Outlook (IETO) 2022. Since 2017, IETO – previously called Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook (ICEO), has consistently explained the development of the energy transition in Indonesia in various sectors as well as provided projections of Indonesia’s energy transition in 2022. For the second year in a row, IETO has specifically analyzed Indonesia’s energy transition readiness.

At a global level, 2021 was marked by some important events such as the Climate Summit hosted by the US president, Joe Biden, who called for the whole world to take more ambitious steps to tackle the climate crisis. The G20 Summit and COP 26 reiterated that the commitments and actions to mitigate the climate crisis of all countries are still not sufficient to suppress the increase in the global average temperature of 1.5 degrees Celsius. More ambitious and aggressive climate mitigation actions are needed.

Although not yet in line with the Paris Agreement, Indonesia has begun to show a quite progressive political commitment by setting a net-zero target by 2060 or earlier, plans to retire 9.2 GW  coal-fired power plants early, and the issuance of a new RUPTL which gives the share of renewable energy up to 51.6%. According to IESR, this commitment can be seen as a breath of fresh air for the development of renewable energy in Indonesia. However, this still has not been able to accelerate Indonesia’s energy transition, and achieve the Paris Agreement target of achieving carbon neutrality by the middle of this century.

Julius Cristian, the lead author of the IETO 2022 report, saw some uncertainty from the government.

“For example, although the latest RUPTL has accommodated about 50% of renewable energy or around 20 GW when compared to the need for decarbonization which reaches 130 GW, this plan is certainly far from what is needed. In addition, the government is still relying on strategies that we think are not feasible, such as the use of nuclear and CCS which are more expensive than renewable energy,” he explained.

The IETO 2022 assesses that Indonesia is capable of achieving net-zero by 2050. To achieve this, Indonesia must reach peak emissions before 2030, and after that start reducing them. One of the implications of this is that Indonesia is no longer allowed to build CFPPs and must immediately start retiring old CFPPs.

Considering the potential and availability of resources, solar PV will be the backbone of Indonesia’s decarbonization. However, its growth in 2021 was only around 18 MW, even though the demand will reach 108 GW in 2030, or an average increase of 10 GW per year.

Handriyanti Diah Puspitarini added that there has been a slight improvement in terms of policy quality and social (public acceptance) regarding the energy transition, but commitment from the government and the renewable energy investment climate still needs a lot of improvement.

“We need to see how the implementation of various regulations that will come and have been issued will be implemented. The government must also realize that the public has begun to be aware of this issue and support the energy transition, so the government should also support this already high public support,” explained Handriyanti.

Herman Darnel Ibrahim, a member of the National Energy Council (DEN), stressed the importance of renewable energy to grow exponentially to meet electricity demand and meet international agreement targets. Although throughout 2021 there is a momentum for growing awareness to transition Indonesia’s policy direction, it is still uncertain where it will go.

“For example, RUED, ​​although the regions already have RUED, ​​the authority to execute is centralized in PLN and Pertamina, so these regions have RUED but cannot affect the results,” said Herman.

Faela Sufa, Southeast Asia Director of ITDP, sees that the transportation sector can be one of the drivers of the renewable energy ecosystem in Indonesia.

“For example, for the electrification of public transportation, we need to synchronize together and identify what incentives need to be given so that it can be more tangible in energy use and coordination with various sectors related to renewable energy for electrification,” explained Faela.

Yusrizki, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce (KADIN) for New and Renewable Energy, said that KADIN has declared it will become a net-zero organization in 2060 and is actively encouraging its members to have a-net zero target.

“In the 2022 G20 summit, we are expected to have 100 Indonesian companies that have pledged a net-zero target and this is a very ambitious target. We start from education, assisting -helping them to make their agenda-, to pledge their commitment,” Yusrizki explained.

Meanwhile, Arief Sugiyanto, Vice President of PLN’s RUPTL Control, explained that his party is currently trying to meet the energy mix target of 23% by 2025.

“The target of 23% NRE in 2025 is indeed a formidable challenge. One of PLN’s strategies is to change diesel power generators in isolated areas gradually with NRE generators available in those locations,” said Arief.

Net-Zero Emission Agenda Private Sector Opportunity to Increase Competitiveness

Jakarta, 14 December 2021 – 2021 is considered as a progressive period marked by a number of important events and the birth of various commitments aimed to reduce the impact of climate change. A number of heads of state in the world are competing to show their leadership in dealing with climate change. This is not surprising because according to the report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR6, in August 2021, it was stated that the time for us to repress the increased global temperature below 1.5 degrees Celsius is less than a decade. Our climate action in a couple years to go will determine whether we will succeed in achieving the climate target under the Paris Agreement, which is to achieve net-zero emissions by the mid of this century.

To explore perspectives and encourage collaboration from various parties, the Indonesia Business Council for Sustainable Development (IBCSD) held a webinar titled “What Net Zero Emission Means for the Private Sector” on Tuesday, December 14, 2021.

Indonesia through the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has updated its NDC and equipped it with a strategic document, Long Term Strategy – Low Carbon Climate Resilience aligned with the Paris Agreement (LTS – LCCR). Indonesia also announced net-zero emissions by 2060 (or sooner). With climate change increasingly critical, the Government of Indonesia is urged to accelerate its net-zero emission target.

Laksmi Dewanthi, Director General of Climate Change Control at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, said that the government is aware of the need to accelerate net-zero emissions.

“So, if we want to achieve net-zero faster, we ask all stakeholders to take more roles in Indonesia’s net-zero plan,” she said.

Medrilzam, Director of the Environment at National Development Agency (Bappenas) added, collaboration and concrete actions from all parties will be the key to achieve the net-zero emission target in Indonesia. “The government needs to prepare enabling conditions so that cooperation with the private sector and other parties can run well,” he said.

Medrilzam also emphasized that based on the Bappenas study, low carbon development results in higher economic benefits than business as usual.

Not only for the government, there are various benefits for corporations if they have a net-zero emission target.

“Aligning to climate science is good for business. Because apart from being in line with the government’s agenda, implementing climate commitments also increases the competitiveness of companies. Companies are expected to continue to seize such opportunities,” explained Amelie Tan, Regional Lead for the Carbon Disclosure Project.

On the same occasion, the Executive Director of IESR, Fabby Tumiwa, emphasized that the government needs to intervene in at least four areas to encourage private sectors to move towards low-carbon businesses. The four sectors include (1)policies and regulations, (2) low-carbon technology and infrastructure, (3) innovation, and (4) raising market and consumer awareness to choose low-carbon products.

“Our study shows that the energy system in Indonesia can technically and economically achieve zero emission by 2050 with 4 strategies, namely increasing renewable energy capacity, reducing fossil fuels, electrification, and using clean fuels,” he said.

Fabby also added the importance of carbon emission disclosure for corporations who are committed to reducing their emissions so that the wider community knows which companies have commitments to control climate change. 

Book Discussion “Jejak dan Langkah Energi Terbarukan Indonesia” or “Indonesia’s Renewable Energy Trails and Steps”

Book Discussion “Jejak dan Langkah Energi Terbarukan Indonesia” or “Indonesia’s Renewable Energy Trails and Steps”. This dynamic of renewables development in Indonesia has been covered by the media. Kompas, as one of the biggest media in Indonesia, has created many in-depth coverage writings on this topic. These daily in-depth reports are compiled in a book called “Jejak dan Langkah Energi Terbarukan Indonesia”, written together with the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR). This book aims to describe the actual conditions of energy transition in the field.

Continue reading

Indonesia’s Triumph in the Next 30 Years Against the Climate Crisis, Decided Now

Jakarta, 4 December 2021-“Everyone has used solar panels, and there are electric motors too. The air feels so fresh!” said Kiara in Kiara’s Dream which describes the environment of Indonesia in 2050. This dream should be the general dream of the Indonesian people, notably the policymakers whose decision will determine the journey of the Indonesian.

The success of Indonesia in 2050 as Kiara’s description depends  on the Indonesian government’s strategy in preparing and providing a better planet for future generations. The step to reach it must start from now by making an energy transition, switching from fossil energy to renewable energy.

President Jokowi in his briefing to the Commissioners and Directors of Pertamina and PLN, even emphasized that the energy transition could not be delayed any longer. Jokowi firmly asked his staff to immediately prepare a concrete, compact, detailed grand design of energy transition. Jokowi said that welcoming the energy transition era, all sectors need to change by developing renewable energy instead of fossil fuels. This is part of the global movement to tackle the climate crisis.

The climate crisis has been a common enemy for years. The struggle against it has been set in the Paris Agreement in 2015 agreed by 197 countries. Each country tries to keep its emissions as low as possible to keep the earth’s temperature well below 1.5 degrees Celsius after pre-industrial times.

Until COP 26 in Glasgow ended on November 13, 2021, as many as 137 countries already had a carbon neutral target of 2050-2070. Indonesia is targeting carbon neutrality by 2060 or sooner with international support. However, these efforts were considered insufficient to limit the earth’s temperature. The results from the Climate Action Tracker state that even with the country’s commitment to achieving carbon neutrality in the 2050-2070 timeframe, the earth will still be heated at 2.5-2.7 degrees Celsius in 2100.

Regrettably, as one of the largest emission contributors in the world, particularly in the forestry & land sector and the energy sector, Indonesia has not yet set ambitious steps in combating climate change. Although taking a positive commitment to the early retirement of 9.2 GW of coal-fired power plants, according to the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), at least a total of 10.5 GW of coal-fired power plants must be retired before 2030 to be in line with the Paris Agreement.

To urge the Indonesian government to be bolder in its efforts to mitigate the climate crisis demands the role of Indonesian people, including young people. IESR through the Clean, Affordable, and Secure Energy for Southeast Asia (CASE) project in collaboration with AIESEC UI at the Global Impact Conference, which was attended by youth across countries underlined the important and impactful things that youth can do, including by sharing information about the energy sector as the second-largest greenhouse gas emission contributor after forestry and land.

“Awareness of the damaging impact of fossil energy to the earth will encourage people to have responsible behavior towards energy consumption, for instance by saving energy,” said Agus Tampubolon (blue tshirt), CASE Project Manager, IESR.

Furthermore, every Indonesian citizen has a significant part in resolving the quality of life for their children and grandchildren by choosing leaders who have a vision and mission to realize low emission development and massive use of renewable energy, both at regional and national levels.

Agus added that to accelerate the energy transition process systematically, local governments play its key in setting a high target for achieving renewable energy in the Regional Energy General Plan (RUED). Local governments must have a detailed mapping of the technical potential of renewable energy in their area, build networks, and prepare relevant regulations to attract more investment in renewable energy in their area. Thus, Kiara’s Dream, our dream, and the dreams of future generations can come true.

 

COP 26, Indonesia Has No Ambitious Climate Action Breakthrough

Jakarta, 03 November – President Joko Widodo at the 26th World Leaders Summit on Climate Change or COP-26 did not announce a firm statement about increasing Indonesia’s climate ambitions. The Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) views that the Indonesian government should be using this moment to lead and encourage the G20 countries to set compatible climate action with the Paris Agreement. However, in his speech at COP 26, President Jokowi seemed to hand over the responsibility to developed countries to determine the achievement of carbon neutral conditions in Indonesia. It showed the less ambitious state of the Indonesian government in dealing with the climate crisis.

“Indonesia should clearly state its climate ambitions, increase its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets and convey the funding needs from developed countries to achieve peak emissions by 2030 and decarbonization by 2060 or earlier. Unfortunately, the President did not state targets and plans for more ambitious mitigation actions in his speech,” said Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR. He is also currently in Glasgow attending the COP 26 event.

The Climate Transparency Report, Country Profile of Indonesia 2021 finds that staying in the current NDC unconditional reduction target of 29%  will contribute to increased emissions (excluding the emissions from land use) to 535% above 1990 levels, or around 1,817 MtCO2e in 2030. Meanwhile, to stay below the 1.5˚C temperature limit, Indonesia’s 2030 emissions should be around 461 MtCO2e (or 61% above 1990 levels). This indicates an ambition gap of 1,168 MtCO2e.

“As a country that has quite large natural and mineral resources, such as nickel, Indonesia can raise its climate ambitions beyond the target of 29% by 2030. Moreover, if Indonesia with a large population has implemented energy conservation and efficiency since earlier, without the funds from a developed country, Indonesia can reduce carbon greater than the target in the NDC,” explained Lisa Wijayani, Manager of the Green Economy Program, IESR.

Furthermore, IESR observes that Indonesia’s plan, which was stated by Jokowi on the same occasion, to transition to clean energy is still constrained by regulations that have not yet been issued. Jokowi proposed to build the largest solar PV in Southeast Asia, but until today the Regulation of Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No. 26/2021 Regarding Rooftop Solar Power Plants is still waiting for approval at the Ministry of Finance. Besides, the Presidential Regulation regarding new and renewable energy, which has been awaited since early 2021, has not yet been released.

“The Indonesian government should simultaneously issue appropriate regulations to create a more massive renewable energy ecosystem for development, as well as encourage investment from developed countries. Clear regulations and targets can open up greater opportunities for investors to invest in renewable energy,” added Lisa.

Not only that, but in his attention, Jokowi also plays an important role in carbon markets and prices in solving climate problems. This October, the government has issued the Law on Harmonization of Tax Regulations. A carbon tax of IDR 30 per kilogram of carbon dioxide equivalent will be applied to the number of emissions that exceed the stipulated emission limits (cap and tax).

“The determination of the carbon tax price at IDR 30 per kg (USD 2 per ton) is still very far from the recommendations of the World Bank and IMF which set the carbon tax price for developing countries to be in the range of USD 35-100t/CO2e. Even the IPCC report explains that the carbon tax rate in 2020 is in the range of US$ 40-80/tCO2. With a small carbon tax rate, the government’s goal to reduce carbon emissions significantly through this carbon tax will not be achieved,” said Lisa.

Climate Transparency Report 2021: Real Climate Change Impacts, Indonesia Needs to Increase its Climate Action

Jakarta, 28 October 2021 – A few days before COP 26 in Glasgow, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) launched the Climate Transparency Report, Country Profile of Indonesia 2021. In particular, this annual report on climate action by the G20 countries, highlights Indonesia’s climate action. which includes adaptation, mitigation and financial mobilization to address climate change.

IESR Executive Director, Fabby Tumiwa, in his speech said that the launch of the Climate Transparency report is very relevant to COP26 because this report measures whether Indonesia’s climate action achievements are in line with the Paris Agreement targets or not.

“We only have less than a decade left to ensure a global temperature rise below 1.5 degrees Celsius. Indonesia is also highlighted because we are a member of the G20, also because Indonesia is ranked in the top 10 largest emitting countries in the world, “explained Fabby.

For this reason, according to Emil Salim, Professor of the Faculty of Economics at UI who is also an environmentalist, policy makers in Indonesia need to establish political policies that are able to reduce carbon emissions and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 for the survival of future generations.

“The fate of the younger generation in 2050 depends on the political decisions we make now. Don’t just think about the current economic benefits, because it’s the younger generation who will bear the consequences of the choices they don’t make. Think about what will happen to the Indonesian people if the impact of climate change gets worse,” said Emil Salim.

Presenting the report on Indonesia’s climate action, Lisa Wijayani, Green Economy Program Manager, IESR underlined that Indonesia’s climate action is categorized as “highly insufficient” in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The use of fossil energy reaches 82% in 2020 making the energy sector the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Indonesia (45.7% in addition to emissions from forests and land use).

Based on the findings of Climate Transparency, Lisa explained that 2020 should be the peak of coal use and from 2030-2040 its use should be gradually reduced until it is no longer used. 

“In addition, to reduce emissions from the transportation sector, Indonesia must increase the use of renewable energy by 40-60% in 2040 or 70-90% in 2050,” explained Lisa regarding the second largest emitting sub-sector;  transportation.

The Climate Transparency report also encourages ecosystems that support the development of renewable energy, including by halting subsidies on fossil energy.

“Removal of subsidies will help renewable energy compete with fossil energy,” added Lisa.

In terms of the impact of climate change on health, Budi Haryanto, Epidemiologist at the University of Indonesia, explained the high mortality rate due to the increase in the earth’s temperature.

“It is estimated that in 2030-2050, climate change will cause an additional million deaths per year due to malnutrition, malaria, and stress due to heat waves,” he explained.

Furthermore, Budi encourages the government, especially the Ministry of Health to have health data related to climate change adaptation.

In frequency, climate-related disasters are increasing. This was conveyed by Raditya Jati, Deputy of System and Strategy, National Disaster Management Agency. He added that Indonesia as an archipelagic country has a fairly high risk of natural disasters.

“7 out of 10 disasters that occur are hydrometeorological disasters and the frequency this year is higher than 2020,” said Raditya.

In order to significantly reduce GHG emissions, transformation also needs to be carried out in the economic sector, by shifting to a green economy. Eka Chandra Buana, Director of Macroeconomic Planning and Statistical Analysis, Bappenas said that the green economy is a game changer for the Indonesian economy after Covid-19. According to him, low-carbon development by utilizing renewable energy will be the backbone to achieve Indonesia’s green economy targets and net-zero emissions by 2060.

“Based on our calculation, to achieve net-zero in 2060, Indonesia must increase the use of new and renewable energy to 70% in 2050, and 87% in 2060. This calculation is still in process,” said Eka Chandra. 

The success of low-carbon development certainly requires the participation of all parties, especially the city government. Bernardia Tjandradewi, Secretary General of United Cities and Local Governments Asia Pacific (UCLG ASPAC) said that the responsibility of city governments is vital, especially statistically, 60-80% of greenhouse gas emissions in the world are generated in urban areas.

 

“UCLG ASPAC encourages the role of regional heads (mayors) in dealing with climate change by providing training to city governments on climate action planning, access to climate-related finance, and the adoption and development of monitoring tools,” explained Bernardia.

 

Whatever the solution to reducing GHG emissions, including transitioning energy to renewable energy, it must be done fairly. Desi Ayu Pirnasari, Researcher at the University of Leeds, emphasized that an equitable transition will shape climate resilience and social inclusion in society.

 

“The strategy should prioritize community participation to increase ownership on our agenda, to help us achieve our targets. Climate justice is not only about mitigation or action, but also to improve the living standards of vulnerable people,” she stressed.

Climate Change: An all aspects of life crisis requires all parties participation

Jakarta, 19 October 2021 – Two weeks before the Conference of the Parties (COP) 26 in Glasgow, climate issues are widely discussed in Indonesia, one of which is to raise public voices and provide input to the Indonesian government, which is planned to be attended by President Joko Widodo to increase Indonesia’s climate ambitions.

Indonesia has renewed its climate commitments through the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) document which is complemented by the LTS-LCCR (Long Term Strategy – Low Carbon Climate Resilience) document. In terms of numbers, Indonesia did not raise its ambition any further, namely to stay at 29% with its own efforts and 41% with international assistance. Indonesia is also committed to becoming net-zero emissions by 2060 or sooner. Unfortunately, this effort is not enough to bring Indonesia to keep the earth’s average temperature increase of no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

In a webinar entitled “Towards COP26: Climate change and the role of the public in preserving the earth”, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute of Essential Services Reform (IESR) explained that since the 1880s Indonesia has always been included in the top 10 largest emitting countries (Carbon Brief).

“We should see this responsibility to reduce emissions not as a burden but also as an opportunity to carry out a low-carbon economic transformation. The results of the IESR study show that decarbonization in 2050 will actually bring greater economic benefits, because in addition to creating new industrial opportunities and greater employment, Indonesia’s energy prices will be more affordable as well as social and economic benefits that can be felt such as cleaner air and reduce the threat of hydrometeorological disasters due to climate change,” explained Fabby.

Muhamad Ali Yusuf, Chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) Disaster Management and Climate Change Institute, explained that in terms of religious-based community organizations communicating the issue of climate change is challenging because the public in general will care about the problems that are in front of their eyes, so we need down to earths and contextual way to talk about climate change in the community.

“On the other hand, our religious discourse is still far from ecological issues such as climate change. Even if it already exists, it has not become a priority issue. So actually literacy on climate change is also necessary for religious leaders,” he explained.

Executive Secretary for Witness and Integrity of Creation, Communion of Indonesian Churches (PGI), Pastor Jimmy Sormin added that religious leaders and figures have a strategic role to influence the views and behavior of the people and have a significant impact on influencing people’s mindsets and perspectives.

“So you must be creative to convey climate change,” explained Pastor Jimmy.

Information on climate change must be disseminated to the wider community without exception, because when the impacts of climate change such as hydrometeorological disasters appear, all residents will be affected.

Mike Verawati, Secretary General, Indonesian Women’s Coalition, explained that women are the ones most affected by climate change because our policies and systems are not inclusive. Citizens’ needs are seen as neutral needs.

“Climate, infrastructure, and nature issues are usually considered as big narratives or masculine issues, so in the end this issue is considered not a women’s issue even though they know the details and are actively advocating, even though sometimes they can’t explain it scientifically,” explained Mike.

Not only women but young people also need to be involved in policy-making efforts to tackle climate change. As the generation that will live in the future, it is these young people who will bear the impact of the climate crisis that is not taken seriously in the future.

“The Indonesian government already has a commitment to reduce emissions, become net-zero by 2060, and overcome the climate crisis. However, this commitment is not enough to overcome this climate crisis, several policy products issued by the government such as the Minerba Law, Food Estate, and the Omnibus Law are counter-productive to efforts to tackle the climate crisis,” explained Melissa Kowara, Extinction Rebellion Indonesia’s Activist.

Melissa also highlighted the lack of literacy about climate change for the wider community. This makes people seem silent or passive because they do not understand the context.