Towards COP 26, Community Leaders Demand Climate Emergency Declaration

Jakarta, 19 October 2021Indonesia has updated its climate commitments through its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 or sooner. Indonesia’s commitment which is ten years behind the target of the Paris Agreement implies the government’s unambitious efforts in responding to the climate crisis that threatens the lives of the Indonesian people.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) said that the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) should not be seen as a burden but as an opportunity to transform into a low carbon economy.

“Based on our study entitled Deep decarbonization of Indonesia’s energy system, deep decarbonization of the energy system in 2050 will bring greater economic benefits,” said Fabby in the webinar “Towards COP 26: Climate change and the role of the society to preserve the earth” held by IESR (19/10/2021).

Fabby added that the community will feel the economic benefits by the creation of new industrial opportunities that can absorb a larger workforce. Moreover, Indonesia’s energy prices will be more affordable by using cheaper renewable energy technologies and cleaner air. He said that the compatible climate ambitions with the Paris Agreement will lessen the threat of hydrometeorological disasters as a consequence of increasing the earth’s temperature exceeding 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Highlighting policies and the level of public literacy on the climate crisis, community leaders in the event stated that unintegrated climate-related policies and the lack of access to climate change information make the climate change mitigation efforts in Indonesia keep decelerating.

The absence of a climate emergency declaration by the government, according to Melissa Kowara, Activist, Extinction Rebellion Indonesia, indicates the government’s low level of seriousness in dealing with the climate crisis.

“There has not been a firm stance from the highest levels of the country to say that we are in a crisis. (There is no declaration that says-ed) that we will do everything by the private sector, civil society, and government to overcome problems that affect the lives and survival of all of us,” said Melissa. She said this is also the cause of low public literacy regarding climate change.

Muhammad Ali Yusuf, Chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama Disaster Management and Climate Change Institute (LPBI NU), Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), also revealed that religious discourse in Indonesia itself is still far from ecological issues or climate change.

“Even if there is (climate discourse-ed), yet it is not the top priority issue. Therefore, climate change literacy is also necessary for religious leaders because religious life is impossible to prevail in the climate crisis,” he explained.

Furthermore, Jimmy Sormin, Executive Secretary for Witness and Integrity of Creation, Communion of Churches in Indonesia (PGI), encouraged religious leaders to play their role in increasing people’s understanding of climate issues by discussing them according to the local context.

“In the regions, the impacts of climate change, such as the emergence of new pests, crop failure, are experienced by the community, but they do not understand it. It is necessary to ‘rationalize’ it according to their perspective (the local community-ed),” said Jimmy.

Looking at the issue of climate change from a woman’s perspective, Mike Verawati Tangka, Secretary-General, Indonesian Women’s Coalition (KPI) believes that the climate change effect has a close impact on women’s lives. However, Mike regrets that environmental issues and change tend to be considered as masculine issues that override the role of women in caring for nature and advocating for climate issues.

“The impact of climate change is perceived the most laborious by women because our policies and systems are not prepared inclusively. Positive initiatives taken by women by advocating for climate change must also be recognized by the state,” said Mike

Emissions are rising across the G20, again – warns a report

Emissions are rising across the G20, again – warns a report

Despite net zero commitments and updated NDCs, the G20’s climate action is leaving the world far from meeting the 1.5°C global warming limit

Jakarta, 15 Oktober 2021-After a short period of decline, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are rebounding across the G20, with Argentina, China, India and Indonesia projected to exceed their 2019 emissions levels. This is one of the key findings of the Climate Transparency Report – the world’s most comprehensive annual stocktake and comparison of G20 climate action.

 

In 2020, energy-related CO2 emissions plunged by 6% across the G20. In 2021, however, they are projected to rebound by 4%. “Rebounding emissions across the G20, the group responsible for 75% of global GHG emissions, shows that deep and fast cuts in emissions are now urgently needed to achieve net zero announcements,” says Gahee Han from the South Korean organisation Solutions For Our Climate, one of the lead authors of the report.

 

The report also notes some positive developments, such as the growth of solar and wind power among G20 members, with new records of installed capacities in 2020. The share of renewables in energy supply is projected to grow from 10% in 2020 to 12% in 2021. And in the power sector (energy used to make electricity and heat), renewables increased by 20% between 2015 and 2020, and are projected to become nearly 30% of the G20’s power mix in 2021. At the same time, though, experts note that apart from the UK, G20 members have neither short- nor long-term strategies in place for achieving 100% renewables in the power sector by 2050.

 

In spite of these positive changes, dependence on fossil fuels is not going down. On the contrary, the consumption of coal is projected to rise by nearly 5% in 2021, while the consumption of gas has increased by 12% across the G20 from 2015-2020. The report finds that the growth in coal is mainly concentrated in China – the largest global producer and consumer of coal – followed by the US and India.

 

At the same time, recent announcements signal that most G20 governments are aware of the need for a transition to low-carbon economies. Net zero targets should be reached by latest 2050 to limit global warming to 1.5°C, something that according to the Climate Transparency Report, has been acknowledged by the majority of G20 governments. By August 2021, 14 G20 members had already committed to net zero targets covering almost 61% of global GHG emissions.

 

As stated in the Paris Agreement, each Party is expected to submit a Nationally Determined Contribution – a climate plan that lays out targets, policies and measures that each government aims to implement. By September 2021, 13 G20 members (including France, Germany and Italy under the EU’s NDC) had officially submitted NDC updates, with six setting more ambitious 2030 targets. Yet, even if fully implemented, current targets assessed by April 2021 would still lead to warming of 2.4°C by the end of the century, experts caution. “G20 governments need to come to the table with more ambitious national emission reductions targets. The numbers in this report confirm we can’t move the dial without them – they know it, we know it – the ball is firmly in their court ahead of COP26,” says Kim Coetzee from Climate Analytics, who coordinated the overall analysis.

 

Key selected figures from the report:

 

    • Due to governments’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, energy-related CO2 emissions declined by 6% in 2020. However, in 2021, CO2 emissions are projected to rebound by 4% across the G20, with Argentina, China, India and Indonesia projected to exceed their 2019 emissions levels.
    • The G20’s share of renewables increased from 9% in 2019 to 10% in 2020 in Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES), and this trend is projected to continue, rising to 12% in 2021.
    • Between 2015 and 2020, the share of renewables in the G20’s power mix increased by 20%, reaching 28.6% of the G20’s power generation in 2020 and is projected to reach 29.5% in 2021.
  • From 2015 to 2020, the carbon intensity of the energy sector has decreased by 4%

across the G20.

  • Coal consumption is projected to rise by almost 5% in 2021, with this growth driven by China (accounting for 61% of the growth), the USA (18%) and India (17%).
  • The USA (4.9 tCO2/capita) and Australia (4.1 tCO2/capita) have the highest building emissions per capita in the G20 (average is 1.4 tCO2/capita), reflecting the high share of fossil fuels, especially natural gas and oil, used for heat generation.
  • Between 1999 and 2018 there have been nearly 500,000 fatalities and close to USD 3.5 trillion of economic costs due to climate impacts worldwide, with China, India, Japan, Germany, and the USA being hit particularly hard in 2018.
  • Across the G20, the current average market share of electric vehicles (EVs) in new car sales remains low at 3.2% (excluding the EU), with Germany, France, and the UK having the highest shares of EVs.
  • Between 2018 and 2019, G20 members provided USD 50.7 billion/year of public finance for fossil fuels. The highest providers of public finance were Japan (USD 10.3 billion/year), China (just over USD 8 billion/year), and South Korea (just under USD 8 billion/year).

 

Most G20 members also missed opportunities related to leverage COVID-19 recovery packages to promote climate mitigation goals. Only USD 300 billion of the total USD 1.8 trillion in recovery spending went to the much-heralded “green” recovery whilst fossil fuels continue to be subsidised. “It is extremely disappointing that a decade has passed since the commitment to rationalise and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies was made, but G20 members are still pumping billions of US dollars into dirty fuels, which are causing climate change,” says Enrique Maurtua Konstantinidis from Fundación Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (FARN) in Argentina. In 2019, G20 members, excluding Saudi Arabia, provided at least USD 152 billion in subsidies for the production and consumption of coal, oil, and gas.

 

Effective carbon pricing schemes could encourage the transition to a low-carbon economy, according to the authors of the report. However, only 13 G20 members have in place some form of explicit national carbon pricing scheme. Brazil, Indonesia, Russia and Turkey are currently considering introducing such a scheme.

 

The Climate Transparency Report was developed by 16 research organisations and NGOs from 14 G20 members and compares the adaptation, mitigation, and finance related efforts of the G20; analyses recent policy developments; and identifies climate opportunities that G20 governments can seize. This is the 7th edition of the annual review of G20 climate action.

 

About Climate Transparency:

Climate Transparency is a global partnership of 16 think tanks and NGOs that brings together experts from the majority of G20 countries. Our mission is to encourage ambitious climate action in the G20 countries: we inform policy makers and stimulate national debate.

Indonesia Can Achieve Net Zero Emission Before 2070

Jakarta, 28 April 2021 — President Joko Widodo’s speech during the Leader Summit on Climate Change which stated that he would seriously tackle the issue of the climate crisis was considered less ambitious by a number of parties. This is because President Jokowi’s statement emphasizes the FOLU sector (Forestry and Land use Conversion), while the energy sector, which will be the largest contributor to emissions in the future, was not even mentioned at all. Meanwhile, on the same occasion, a number of country leaders expressed their commitment to reduce emissions and their target to be carbon neutral. Indonesia through the Ministry of Environment and Forestry has released a 2050 Long-term Strategy on Low Carbon and Climate Resilience (LTS-LCCR) which targets that Indonesia will become carbon neutral by 2070. Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) ) views this target as less ambitious and shows the government’s half-hearted efforts in dealing with the climate crisis.

Responding to this, IESR continues the discussion series #Before2070 to see Indonesia’s opportunities to achieve carbon neutrality by 2070. This webinar is the second part of a series of #Before2070 webinars aimed to encourage the government to make more ambitious climate policy targets. Indonesia’s target to become carbon neutral by 2070 is considered inconsistent with the Paris Agreement commitment that was signed by Indonesia in 2015 and ratified by Law no. 16 of 2016.

Preparing a Long-Term Strategy towards being carbon neutral by 2050 is the obligation of each country that signs the Paris Agreement. However, the LTS-LCCR 2050 document that is owned by the government has become a debate and has caused controversy even among the government itself. This can be seen from the inconsistency of documents and explanations between government agencies regarding Indonesia’s carbon-neutral targets.

For example, the Ministry of Bappenas previously explained about Low Carbon Development in Indonesia (LCDI) which offered several scenarios if Indonesia became carbon neutral in 2045, 2050, 2060, or 2070 and its implication to Indonesian economic growth.

“Climate commitments must be integrated with national development programs. Indonesia’s commitment to achieve net zero-emission has been stated in the RPJMN, ”explained Medrilzam, Director of Environment at Bappenas. He also emphasized that there should be no trade-off between economic growth and efforts to reduce emissions. According to him, achieving carbon-neutral requires a lot of funds. Therefore, apart from cooperation and multi-stakeholder commitment, Indonesia needs to receive strong support from international countries.

From the energy sector, Agus Cahyono Adi, Head of the Center for Data and Information at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, said that his party is preparing to support Indonesia in achieving net-zero emission to meet energy needs with various efforts.

“The energy sector is an important sector in the net-zero emission plan because we are one of the emission contributors. In addition to reducing emissions, we are also trying to increase energy demand. Increasing renewable energy and the use of clean fuels play an important role in increasing energy demand, “said Agus.

However, his party has not dared to announce a target figure or deadline to become carbon neutral from the energy sector.

“For each choice that we will take, we need to consider the aspects of availability, accessibility and affordability,” he explained.

To achieve carbon neutrality, more innovative efforts are needed, especially through developing an investment climate such as carbon trading. Kus Prisetiahadi, Assistant Deputy for Climate Change and Disaster Management, Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs and Investment (Kemenko Marves) explained that currently the Presidential Decree for the value of the carbon economy is a guideline for GHG emission reduction and low-carbon national development is still being drafted. There are at least 8 regulatory components in this Presidential Decree and the marine sector is one of the sectors that will be developed for efforts towards mitigation.

Dian Afriyanie, Lokahita senior researcher, highlighted the lack of integration across sectors and scales in policymaking. This results in policy products that often feel out of sync between one ministry/agency and another ministry/institution. 

Furthermore, Eka Melissa, Senior Advisor of The Partnership for Governance Reform, emphasized that low-carbon development should be seen as an opportunity to develop the country, be environmentally friendly while meeting the targets of international agreements.

“I see that Bappenas has seen it (as an opportunity) but other ministries seem to still see it as a proven challenge from the various documents produced. Low carbon development is still seen as an obstacle and a challenge,” she said.

Synchronization of this point of view must first of all be carried out so that the policy produced by each institution leads to the same estuary. If the point of view of each institution on an issue is different, then the final outcome of the policy will definitely not go in the same direction.

The role of local government is considered very important in achieving carbon-neutral development. Andy Simarmata, Chair of the Indonesian Planning Experts Association (IAP) gave a view that the government and other relevant stakeholders can campaign for carbon neutrality down to the regional level so that it can be translated into the RPJMD (regional medium-term development planning). Incentives for the business world, especially the pattern of business behavior, also need to be provided in addition to encouraging the technology.

For climate commitments, especially targets to be carbon neutral, each related party needs to see the current climate situation as a crisis that requires a quick and precise coping strategy. The more we postpone dealing with the climate crisis, the greater the costs and the heavier the efforts that must be made in the future.

IESR: Indonesia Can Achieve Carbon Neutrality Before 2060

Press Release
For Immediate Release
Jakarta, 25 March 2021 – In an effort to fulfil the mandate of the Paris Agreement, the Government Indonesia through the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) as the national focal point for the UNFCCC, announcing a Long-Term Strategy for Reducing Carbon Emissions and Climate Resilience 2050 (Long-term Strategy on Low Carbon and Climate Resilience (LTS-LCCR) 2050. This meeting was also attended by the relevant ministries. Despite positive progress, the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) looking at Indonesia’s road map towards low carbon by 2050, as showcased in the presentation of the LTS-LCCR 2050 document, was less ambitious and did not meet the target
Paris Agreement.
Several things listed in the LTS-LCCR 2050 document:
  1. The achievement of Indonesia’s first NDC is targeted in 2030, then Indonesia will achieve net-zero emission by 2070;
  2. In mitigation efforts, the LCCP scenario (low carbon scenario compatible with Paris Agreement target) indicates an ambitious target to be implemented in the AFOLU sector (agriculture, forestry and land use), energy, industrial processes and uses products (IPPU), as well as waste;
  3. On a low carbon and climate-resilient policy direction, it is estimated Indonesia will reach the highest peak (peaking) in GHG emissions by 2030 in AFOLU and energy sectors before finally reaching net zero emissions by 2070. In the calculation of emissions, the peak in 2030 will reach 1163 million tons and these emissions will decrease to around 766 million tonnes of CO2e by 2050;
  4. For the energy sector, a transition scenario and LCCP will be an option to be applied. In the more ambitious LCCP target, the primary energy mix will be 34% coal, gas 25%, oil 8%, renewables 33% in 2050. The use of coal will decrease to 205 million tonnes (293 million tonnes of coal);
  5. Additional renewables for generators of around 38 GW in 2035 and will be prioritized for Solar Power Generation due to the increasing investment costs low. In addition, emission reduction will be encouraged through the following actions:
    1. Provision of electricity through EBT generators,
    2. Application of energy efficiencies such as in buildings and public street lighting (PJU),
    3. Use of Biofuels;
    4. Implementation of biomass co-firing to reduce coal consumption in 52 PLTUs,
    5. Utilization of electric vehicles with a target of 2 million cars and 13 million motorbikes in 2030,
    6. Transitions towards low-carbon fuels and clean generation technologies such as the use of CCUS / CCS ( carbon capture, utilization and storage/carbon capture and storage ) and hydrogen
Responding to the explanation regarding Indonesia LTS-LCCR 2050, IESR responded as follows:
  1. IESR responded positively to the peak emission target in 2030. This will provide clear medium-term targets for climate change mitigation action plans in Indonesia. However, it needs clarity regarding the support of policies and regulations that allows each sector to transition quickly and reach the peak emission by 2030;
  2. The achievement of net-zero emissions in 2070 is too long and does not match the Paris Agreement. To be consistent with the Paris Agreement and support restrictions on global temperature (below 1.5°C), then Indonesia’s GHG emissions must have decreased reach 622 million tonnes of CO2e in 2030 (excluding the AFOLU sector) and will reach net-zero in 2050 1 ;
  3. A stronger effort is required, especially to be able to shift from the use of coal. Indonesia needs to gradually stop using coal by 2037 and increase its renewable energy target to at least 50% by 2030 2 ;
  4. Each sector needs to establish mitigation measures that is credible, transparent, and measurable in order to be on track with the Paris Agreement. Based on several global modelling, such as Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), Deep Decarbonization Pathway Project, Energy Watch Group/LUT University, there are several parameters that could be a reference for Indonesia in measuring the suitability of the achievement of GHG emission reduction with Paris Agreement targets.

For the electricity and transportation sector, parameters among others3 :
a. Electricity

    1. The intensity of emissions from the electricity sector; should be in the 50-255 range gCO2 / kWh in 2030 and  in 2050
    2. The renewable energy mix of electricity generation; up to 50-85% in 2030 and 98-100% in 2050
    3. Electricity generation mix from coal PLTU; down to 5-10% by 2030
      b.Transportation

      1. Emission intensity from the land passenger transportation sector; be in the range of 25-30 g CO2/pkm by 2030
      2. Low-carbon fuel mix; reaching 20-25% of the total energy demand in the transportation sector by 2030

5. The IESR study on Indonesia’s energy transition scenario shows that Indonesia can achieve a primary mix of renewable energy of 69% by 2050 with increase the capacity of renewable energy generation to a minimum of 24 GW in the year 2025, build 408-450 GW of renewable energy generation by 2050, and stop the construction of a new coal power plant since 2025 and retire Coal Power Plant early.

6. There is a need for increased investment and research encouragement towards innovation and development of renewable energy technologies such as hydrogen in order to be immediately implemented and optimized for achieving net zero-emission.
7. IESR supports the use of sustainable biofuels and electric vehicles. The Climate Transparency Report 2020 makes clear that biofuels are sustainable that does not leave a carbon footprint, the use of electric vehicles, and stricter fuel efficiency standards would reduce GHG emissions in particular from the transport sector significantly. In addition, the percentage of fuel that is low in carbon in the transport fuel mix should increase to about 60% in year 2050.

References:
CAT (nd). Indonesia country summary
2 Climate Transparency (2020) .The Climate Transparency Report 2020
3 CAT (2020). Paris Agreement Compatible Sectoral Benchmark
4 IESR (2020). National Energy General Plan (RUEN): Existing Plan, Current Policies Implication and Energy Transition
Scenarios

The rising case of Climate Disaster Anomalies in 2020, Indonesian Climate Ambition Report is (Still) Red

Besides Covid-19, Extreme Weather Keeps Attacking 2020

In 2020, a massive climate disaster befalls due to an increase in the earth’s temperature. In just 6 (six) months, there have been more than 100 climate disasters with a total impact of more than 50 million. Compared to 2019, there were 237 natural disasters, with more than 94.6 million people affected. 

The global average temperature for 2020 (January to October) increased to 1.2 ± 0.1 ° C from 1850-1900. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) assesses that 2020 is on course to be one of the three warmest on record. The proof is the warming of the north pole. 

The Arctic plays a significant role in keeping the earth’s temperature cool. The surface of the Arctic sea will reflect sunlight to stabilize the earth’s climate. However, Jeffrey R. Key, a scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), through satellite monitoring, showed the decreasing of the thickness of the Arctic sea ice, increasing plant growth, accelerating ice sheet loss, and the shifting of atmospheric circulation patterns.

It indicates that the world continues to experience a notable increase in temperature. The Climate Transparency Report 2020 summarizes some of the most unusual natural disaster phenomena in 2020. 

The Climate Transparency Report (previously known as “Brown to Green Report”) is the world’s most comprehensive annual review of G20 countries’ climate action and their transition to a net-zero emissions economy. Climate Transparency is a global partnership of 14 think tanks, including the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) and NGOs from most G20 countries with support from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU).

This year’s report analyzes the performance of the G20 countries across 100 indicators of climate adaptation, mitigation, and the financial sector. It also includes the G20 government’s response to the Covid-19 crisis as well as the latest emission data and projections for 2020.

The Climate Transparency report revealed, for the first time in history, in 2020, South Korea experienced the longest monsoon season for 54 days. Dozens of deaths and economic losses for thousands of people from torrential rains, floods, and landslides. Argentina, in the same year, experienced its peatlands with its worst fires in over a decade. It was exacerbated by low water levels and some of the driest conditions since 2008. Brazil endured a similar event as well, precisely in Pantanal, the largest peatland in the world has encountered the worst drought and fire in the last 15 years. Of the most shocking phenomena, Siberia underwent a period of extremely high temperatures, including a record temperature of 38oC in the city of Verkhoyansk on June 20, causing wildfires, loss of ice sheets, and pest invasion.

In Indonesia, The National Agency for Disaster (BNPB) data shows that until 23rd December 2020, there were around 2,878 disasters in Indonesia. The majority were hydrometeorological disasters with the largest number of floods, followed by tornadoes and landslides. A total of 6.3 million people were displaced, 407 people died, and 532 were injured. 

In general, the world is experiencing increasing natural disasters. A report by The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) states that during the Covid-19 pandemic, as many as 51 million people were affected by drought, floods, and strong winds. Compare this with 2019,  with an estimated 41 million people experiencing losses due to floods and strong winds.

Unfortunately, amid a turbulent climate that has brought huge losses (estimated at around USD 139.8 billion), the leaders of countries in the world, especially the G20 or countries that represent 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions, are still detained to demonstrate its commitment to fulfilling the Paris Agreement.

Pitching Lip Services Promises on Climate Ambition Summit

Five years after the Paris Agreement was agreed upon, the United Nations hosted a Climate Ambition Summit (12/12), 75 countries that renewed their Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) were allowed to speak at the event. However, only 3 (three) countries have drawn attention, such as China’s NDC-related commitment to lower its CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by over 65% by 2030, from 2005 levels; the European Union’s NDC-related pledge to reduce GHG emissions by at least 55% from 1990 levels by 2030; and the UK’s NDC-related target of reducing GHG emissions at least 68% below 1990 levels by 2030.

However, Alok Sharma, the expected COP 26 President, criticized that they were still insufficient to fulfill the Paris Agreement. For instance, while China has set bold targets for GHG reduction, Xi Jinping, the Chinese president, provided only small details of the strategy to achieve them.

At the same moment, António Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations, regretted the country’s lack of commitment in facing the threat of the climate crisis.

“We borrow trillions of dollars in stimulus to recover Covid-19 from future generations. However, we use the money to inherit a damaged planet, which is burdening future generations. This is unacceptable, “he said distinctly.

Moreover, based on the observation of the Climate Transparency Report, about 54 percent of the total stimulus of the G20 countries for post-Covid-19 recovery in the energy sector,  directed to support fossil energy (as of October). Furthermore, the Greenness of Stimulus Index (GSI) measurement found that 16 countries in the G20 chose not to reform their systems to accelerate the decarbonization process sustainably.

Indonesia’s Report is Still Red for Climate Ambition

Indonesia was not among the countries invited to the Climate Ambition Summit. It happened because Indonesia has decided to stick to the previous NDC (November 2016). Indonesia’s NDC target is to reduce emissions by 29% on its own and up to 41% if there is international support from business as usual conditions by 2030, through decarbonization in the forestry, energy, waste, industrial processes and product use sectors, and agriculture.

However, based on the modeling of the Climate Action Tracker (CAT), without updating the NDC more ambitiously, Indonesia’s score is still the same as the previous year, which is very insufficient. It is only one level below the worst value, critically insufficient.  It means that with climate mitigation efforts that only refer to its NDC, Indonesia failed to meet the Paris Agreement target of keeping the earth’s temperature below 1.5-20C, but instead allowed it to heat up to 40C by 2030.

The Climate Transparency Report 2020 highlights the fact that Indonesia is one of the countries that experienced a slight reduction in CO2 gas in 2020. The increase in carbon emissions has even occurred in the building sector by up to 14 percent.

On the other hand, Indonesia’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (apart from emissions from land-use) increased by 140% between 1990 and 2017, with the largest increase in GHG coming from the energy sector. However, Indonesia still provides the largest subsidies to the fossil energy sector without making a clear road map and appropriate policy support to gradually move out of dependence on fossil energy. In 2019, Indonesia disbursed fossil fuel subsidies worth USD 8.6 billion compared to the previous year, namely USD 8.1 billion.

As the leader of the G20 in 2022, Indonesia Must Expose Progressive Efforts to Mitigate the Climate Crisis

In 2022, Indonesia will receive high trust from the international community to occupy several strategic roles, one of which is Indonesia exchanging positions with India in the leadership of the G20. Indonesia can use it to recover from the Covid-19 crisis and gather more support from the international community, especially developed countries, by preparing an energy transition road map that maintains decarbonization and development of renewable energy.

“At the G20, Indonesia can emphasize the urgency to accelerate decarbonization efforts and build collective initiatives from G20 countries to support countries that still use coal power plants predominantly to be able to phase out it gradually before 2030 and accelerate the development of clean energy infrastructure with the support of international funding mechanisms, “said Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR.

Governments also still have the opportunity to direct stimulus spending and introduce complementary measures to ensure that public resources support equitable transitions to low-carbon GHG emissions and a climate-resilient future.

The Climate Transparency Report encourages all G20 countries to apply the five principles of green recovery to recover from the Covid-19 crisis and prevent the greatest potential crisis due to climate change.

First, invest in sustainable physical infrastructure. It is including renewable energy development such as solar, wind, biofuels, and hydrogen, as well as the use of carbon-neutral technology. In the transportation sector, the government needs to develop electric vehicle infrastructure based on renewable energy, applying energy-efficient and retrofit buildings (energy storage systems).

Second, invest in nature-based solutions & the environment. It will open up wider green job opportunities, such as land restoration, increasing green cover, fire prevention, and agriculture with an efficient irrigation system.

Third, invest in education, research, and development. These investments can support and advance industrial growth in renewable energy, infrastructure development to support low-carbon vehicles, and water-efficient agriculture.

Fourth, provide prerequisites for sectors that receive bailout funds to be in line with long-term commitments towards sustainability, inclusion, and low carbon.

Fifth, strengthen policies, regulations, and incentives for carbon-neutral development. The post-Covid-19 recovery moment is the right time for the government to support the implementation of an energy transition to low-carbon energy and sustainable development. The government can issue the policy of providing special tax or subsidies for renewable energy, carbon taxes, incentives for low-emission vehicles.

The government’s discipline to fulfill its commitment to low-carbon development will bring the Indonesian people to a better health condition. It also triggers the availability of more green jobs than the fossil fuel industry, more activities in green and agriculture, biodiversity protection, and financial resilience. It keeps the country staying away from stranded assets due to wasted development in the fossil industry.