In 2022, Indonesia increased its GHG emission reduction target from 29% using its own resources to 31.89%, and from 41% to 43.80% with international assistance. The government considers this target more ambitious than before. Several policies have been implemented to achieve this, including the FOLU Net Sink 2030, the B40 policy, increased actions in the waste sector, heightened targets in the agricultural and industrial sectors, Presidential Regulation 18/2021 concerning the Value of Carbon Economy, and Presidential Regulation 112/2022 concerning the Acceleration of Renewable Energy Development for Electricity Supply. These policies serve as the foundation for the increased target.
According to the Climate Action Tracker analysis (2022), Indonesia has taken positive steps towards reducing emissions, such as the plan to phase out coal-fired power plants by 2050. The role of international assistance is crucial in facilitating Indonesia’s coal phase-out. However, CAT assesses Indonesia’s climate targets and policies as ‘highly insufficient’, indicating that the country’s current climate policies and commitments do not align with limiting global temperature rise to below 1.5°C and will result in a temperature increase worldwide.
Indonesia is not alone, and the trend of increasing GHG emissions will continue alongside the rise in energy consumption. According to the ASEAN Center for Energy, GHG emissions from the energy sector in ASEAN are projected to reach 4,171 Mt CO2-eq by 2040. Through a joint statement, ASEAN committed to communicating their respective NDCs that reflect ambitions aligned with UNFCCC decisions and the Paris Agreement. Among the six ASEAN countries analyzed by CAT (Climate Action Tracker, 2022), 3 (Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) have a ‘critically insufficient’ climate action status. This rating indicates that these countries’ climate commitments and policies are minimal and not consistent with the Paris Agreement.
In its leadership of ASEAN in 2023, Indonesia has prioritized green infrastructure development, SDGs implementation, and energy security. From the outcome of the 42nd ASEAN Summit held on May 10-11, 2023, it appears that there is no specific statement on the climate action agenda in ASEAN. Therefore, with this momentum of ASEAN leadership, it is essential for Indonesia to reaffirm its climate commitments aligned with the Paris Agreement and push for more ambitious climate targets and emission reductions at the Southeast Asian regional level.
IESR intends to assess the status of policies and the potential for increasing climate ambition in line with the below 1.5°C target through a joint seminar involving various policymakers, academicians, and civil society organizations. This meeting aims to facilitate an exchange of information and discussions to harmonize the perspectives of policymakers from sectors that impact climate change with those of practitioners and activists working on climate issues. The goal is to emphasize the need to elevate Indonesia’s climate ambition and its translation within ASEAN.
Furthermore, the seminar is expected to foster synergy among all stakeholders to ensure Indonesia successfully achieves its climate targets in accordance with the Paris Agreement. The seminar will also delve into Indonesia’s opportunities and challenges in meeting the Paris Agreement’s climate target of limiting temperature rise to below 1.5°C. Additionally, the outcomes of these discussions can serve as input and recommendations for the climate and energy transition agenda, particularly for Indonesia’s leadership in ASEAN 2023.
- Facilitate the exchange of information, practitioner and expert perspectives, and civil society organization (CSO) expectations regarding the conditions, potential, and challenges for achieving a more ambitious climate target in alignment with the 1.5°C goal.
- Provide insights to guide Indonesia’s leadership in the climate agenda and energy transition during its chairmanship of ASEAN, influencing various sectors relevant to these matters.