Nusa Penida: From Natural Beauty to Energy Independence

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, Analis Sistem Ketenagalistrikan dan Energi Terbarukan

Jakarta, March 28, 2024 – Nusa Penida, a beautiful island in the southeast of Bali, Indonesia, is undergoing extensive transformation to adopt renewable energy sources. With its stunning natural beauty, Nusa Penida will transform into an island that relies entirely on renewable energy sources. Given the challenges posed by global climate change, it is crucial to take measures to reduce carbon emissions and promote environmental sustainability.

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, an Electricity System and Renewable Energy Analyst at the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), has explained that Nusa Penida was selected as an island with 100% renewable energy for three primary reasons. Firstly, the island has an abundance of renewable energy potential. Secondly, its geographical location is separated from mainland Bali. And thirdly, the development of green tourism provides economic potential.

“To achieve 100% renewable energy in Nusa Penida, three stages of implementation can be carried out over the next six years (starting from 2024). The first stage, from 2024 to 2027, will focus on maximizing the potential of rooftop power plants (PLTS) to reduce diesel consumption during the day. Currently, the Nusa Penida electricity system is still reliant on diesel power plants (PLTD), which will be gradually phased out as the implementation progresses,” said Alvin in the X Space entitled Towards Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

The second phase, continued Alvin, began to place PLTD as a backup plan in 2027-2029 and explore other renewable energy sources, such as biomass. According to Alvin, Gamal plants in Nusa Penida can become a source of biomass power plants (PLTBm). The final stage will focus on optimizing other renewable energy plants like biodiesel and ocean currents and building pumped hydro energy storage in 2029-2030.

“It is possible to create an island that runs entirely on renewable energy sources, and this can be achieved through a step-by-step process. For instance, we can start with small-scale projects such as Nusa Penida Island by 2030. We also encourage the decarbonization of Bali’s electricity system to make Bali a sustainable and eco-friendly destination for all,” Alvin said. 

Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari, the Center of Excellence Community Based Renewable Energy (CORE) Chairperson at Udayana University, mentioned that Nusa Penida was previously known for seaweed farming before its development as a tourist destination. The Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (KKP) has designated a seaweed cultivation zone covering approximately 464 hectares, and this area can produce up to nine kiloliters of seaweed daily. However, out of the 20,000 hectares of land or water suitable for seaweed planting, only 70 hectares are currently in use.

“Nusa Penida, a community that was once focused on traditional industries, has shifted its economic orientation to the tourism sector. Seaweed has emerged as a promising source of bioenergy, including biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel. To fully utilize this potential, proper management of seaweed farming is necessary. Seaweed farmers in Nusa Penida must be aware of the renewable energy potential of seaweed and take appropriate steps to manage their farms effectively,” said Ida Ayu. 

In reflecting on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, Ida Ayu mentioned that many destinations within the tourism industry suffered significant losses. As such, there has been a growing need for sustainable economic resilience, and one viable option is cultivating seaweed. Currently, there are several conditions where the harvested seaweed, for example, has only been processed into laundry soap, bath soap, crackers, drinks, and so on. Even more, farmers sell it directly after harvest.

“When people realize the economic value that can be gained from seaweed farming, it is more likely to be adopted. Besides seaweed, Jatropha curcas also has the potential to be used as an energy source. Based on my research, approximately 20% of the total 4,000 hectares of land on Nusa Penida Island can be utilized for growing Jatropha curcas,” said Ida Ayu. 

Ida Ayu provided a pertinent example wherein a 25% allotment of land, approximately 1,000 hectares, dedicated to Jatropha cultivation can yield a biodiesel output between 540-680 liters per hectare. Jatropha is a shrub-like plant found in tropical regions. Its seeds contain oil, which can be processed into biodiesel.


Download Potential Mapping Presentation for Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy

Realizing Bali Net Zero Starts with 100 Percent Renewable Energy in Nusa Penida by 2030

press release

Nusa Penida, March 6, 2024 – The energy transition agenda in Bali Province will be one of the main axes to achieve Bali’s target for net zero emission (NZE) by 2045. The Bali Provincial Government is collaborating with various parties, such as the Bali Net Zero Emission Coalition, which includes the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), WRI Indonesia, New Energy Nexus Indonesia, and CAST Foundation. One of the initiatives taken to achieve this goal is to transition from fossil energy to 100% renewable energy in Nusa Penida by 2030.

Nusa Penida is an island located south of Bali Province, belonging to the Klungkung Regency. The demand for energy is projected to grow with the increase in tourism in Nusa Penida. The energy requirements of Nusa Penida are met by diesel and solar power plants, with a total capacity of 17.06 MW and more than 21 thousand customers. The solar power plants, with batteries of 1.8 MWh, have a capacity of 3.5 MW. Using renewable energy in the form of solar power plants has raised the ratio of renewable energy in the energy mix to nearly 26 percent.

During a speech by the Governor of Bali, S. M. Mahendra Jaya, which was delivered by I Dewa Gede Mahendra Putra, Assistant 1 Government and Welfare of the Regional Secretary of Bali Province, mentioned that the development of renewable energy should be aligned with the economic road map. This alignment will help create a green economy that can flourish in Nusa Penida and Bali.

“The government of Bali is committed to supporting the development of a renewable energy ecosystem that offers various opportunities for green employment, promotes moral and spiritual values in society, and works in synergy with various policies. This ensures that the 2045 Net Zero Emissions (NZE) target is achieved, starting with Nusa Penida. The Bali government always supports the development of a renewable energy ecosystem that provides a variety of opportunities for green labor, raising moral and spiritual values in society and synergy with various policies issued so that the 2045 NZE target can be realized, starting from Nusa Penida,” said I Dewa Gede Mahendra Putra at the launch of the Nusa Penida 100 Percent Renewable Energy Roadmap report organized by IESR in collaboration with the Bali Provincial Government.

To achieve a 100% renewable energy mix by 2030, IESR and Udayana University’s CORE have finalized the Nusa Penida renewable energy roadmap.

Fabby Tumiwa, the Executive Director of IESR, stated that since the renewable energy mix in Nusa Penida has already reached 24 percent, the island only needs to aim for an additional 76 percent by 2030, taking into account the rise in electricity demand, reliability, and production costs.

“To achieve 100 percent renewable energy in Nusa Penida by 2030, three stages need to be completed. Stage one will occur from 2024 to 2027, during which PLTD will be replaced with rooftop solar PV during the day. In stage two, from 2027 to 2029, PLTD will be used as a backup generator, while other renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel and ocean currents, will be optimized. Finally, during stage three in 2029-2030, pumped hydro energy storage will be built to complete the transition to 100 percent renewable energy., “said Fabby.

Alvin Putra Sisdwinugraha, a renewable energy analyst at IESR, stated that solar PV is crucial in increasing Nusa Penida’s renewable energy mix. It has a more significant technical potential and cost-competitiveness than other renewable energy plants, with a capacity of up to 3.2 GW.

“Encouraging the use of rooftop solar panels in Nusa Penida can reduce generation costs borne by system operators. This is because the higher the penetration of rooftop solar panels, the lower the costs. The potential savings can reach up to 7.3 percent, which exceeds the integration costs incurred by the operator. Therefore, it’s beneficial to promote the use of rooftop solar panels,” Alvin explained.


According to him, to overcome the problem of variability by renewable energy power plants in Nusa Penida, there are several systems and technologies that can be used, such as power conversion systems, energy management systems, and energy storage systems.

Technical research on renewable energy sources is necessary to advance the Nusa Penida 100% renewable energy roadmap. The roadmap must align with regional development, energy planning, and PLN’s RUPTL. Additionally, adopting rooftop solar power plants in the commercial sector should be encouraged, and social and economic impact studies should be conducted. These measures will enable Nusa Penida to increase its investment in renewable energy.

Ida Ayu Dwi Giriantari, who is the Chairperson of CORE Udayana University, has expressed the importance of answering existing challenges, such as unoptimized and inconsistent regulations, limited investment, underdeveloped human resources, imported technology, and limited accessibility and infrastructure due to the location of Nusa Penida, for the successful implementation of the road map. 

Welcoming Nusa Penida’s roadmap of 100 percent renewable energy, Luh Ketut Ari Citrawati, Assistant for Economy and Development of the Klungkung Regency Government, stated that the Klungkung Regency government has made the concept of sustainable tourism one of its development priorities, including the establishment of Solar PV development areas in the Spatial and Regional Plan of Klungkung Regency.


Download Potential Mapping Presentation for Nusa Penida 100% Renewable Energy