Redefining Energy Access in Indonesia

Jakarta, 16 June 2022 – Energy is a primary necessity for all people. By having proper access to energy, people get the opportunity to improve their quality of life through education, social gathering, and even economic activity. Realizing its impact on human civilization, it needs serious attention, particularly in terms of its measurement and monitoring. However, the Indonesian government has an unclear method of measuring energy access around the country. Through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the Indonesian government uses “ratio electrification” to define whether an area (a village, for instance) has access to energy or not. In other words, for instance, a village could possibly consist of fifty houses, and only one house has access to PLN’s services so it leads to the consideration as the whole village has been ‘electrified’ or already accessing electricity.

This facts was revealed by Marlistya Citraningrum, Sustainability Energy Access Program Manager, IESR in the webinar “Peeling the Onion: Monitoring, Evaluation, and Other Acronyms for Assessment and Learning in Energy Access” hosted by World Relief Institute (WRI) India

She also added that the government’s ratio electrification method only measures the tier-one electricity access, such as lighting which is often still not available 24 hours. There is no other technical aspect to define energy access in Indonesia.

The recommendation brought by the Institute for Essential Services Reform says that the Indonesian government must redefine energy access terms by including the quality of the electricity received by the community to define whether an area is considered electrified or not yet. 

The multi-tier framework approach can be utilized to define in which spot the quality of electricity in Indonesia. Multi-tier framework itself categorizes electricity from tier 0  to tier 5.

NoTierLoad LevelNotes
1Tier 00No access at all
2Tier 13-49 WTask lighting, phone charging, radio
3Tier 250 - 199 WMultipoint general lighting, TV, computer, printer, fan
4Tier 3200 - 799 WAir cooler, refrigerator, freezer, food processor, water pump, rice cooker
5Tier 4800 - 1.999 WWashing machine, iron, hair dryer, toaster, microwave
6Tier 52.000 W - higherFull access, such as air conditioner, space heater, vacuum cleaner, water heater, electric cookstove

Source: World Bank Document, Bhatia and Angelou 2015

A more comprehensive method to define energy access status is crucial to be implemented in Indonesia because once a method is not comprehensive, the measuring result is not representing the real condition and may lead to a misidentification. 

A pilot project of the energy delivery model by the Institute for Essential Services Reform in Boafeo, East Nusa Tenggara figured out that the community needs more than basic energy access. Community needs energy that can improve their livelihood and economy through coffee farming production, as well as improve the quality of education for their children. 

“If we refer to MEMR’s electrification ratio, we are not able to see the need to improve coffee farming production nor the hope to improve education output, because the village is already connected to the grid (PLN) in early 2021,” Marlistya explained.

She later emphasized that a misidentification of a condition may lead to the wrong offered solutions. Therefore it is very crucial to identify the actual issue and condition comprehensively. 

Showing Leadership in G20, Indonesia Needs to Increase Solar PV Development

JAKARTA, 20 April 2022 – Carrying the energy transition as the main topic of Indonesia’s presidency at the G20, Indonesia needs to show its leadership in pursuing a more massive renewable energy capacity, especially solar energy. Indonesia can also learn from the experiences of the G20 countries in encouraging the growth of solar energy and accelerating the spread of solar energy.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia and the Institute of Essential Services Reform (IESR), in collaboration with BloombergNEF and the International Solar Alliance (ISA), held a workshop to take lessons from G20 countries in encouraging the application of solar power relevant to developing countries. The workshops were also not limited to policy frameworks, fiscal and financial instruments, market readiness, and human resource development.

Ali Izadi – Najafabadi, Head of Research APAC, BloombergNEF, expressed his optimism that Indonesia has the potential to accelerate the energy transition.

“Some analysts say Indonesia lags behind other G20 countries in renewable energy, especially solar power, but I believe Indonesia can catch up. Indonesia has many opportunities to reform policies or special regulatory measures focusing on improving the energy economy and the environment,” said Ali.

In line with Ali, Rohit Garde, Senior Associate for Solar Energy Financing at BloombergNEF, said that BloombergNEF measures state policies in the electricity sector and carbon policies. For example, Germany and England have 84% and 83%, respectively, which indicates that both countries have good procedures for PV mini-grid. Meanwhile, the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) of PV mini-grid in India, China, UAE, and Chile is the lowest due to high levels of solar radiation and large-scale PV mini-grid development. Meanwhile, the LCOE of PV mini-grid in Indonesia is the highest due to its small scale and high cost of capital.

“Indonesia must increase its ambitions by revising regulations and removing development barriers,” added Rohit Garde.

One of the important issues in Indonesia’s leadership in the G20 is the energy transition. Yudo Dwinanda Priadi, Expert Staff to the Minister for Strategic Planning at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, said that the power plant plan already has an Electric Power Supply Business Plan Electricity Supply Business Plan (RUPTL) 2021-2030. A greener RUPTL is a cornerstone of achieving zero carbon by 2060.

“Solar Power Plants (PLTS) have the largest optimization in Indonesia and will reach 4,680 MW by 2030. Therefore, solar energy has the most abundant potential. In addition, the cost continues to decline, and the rapid development of PV mini-grid technology has made solar power generation a priority. The development of rooftop PV mini-grid also includes better implementation and incentives for people who want to install rooftop PV mini-grid. The government has issued the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources No.26/2021, and the rooftop PV roadmap is in the process as a National Strategic Program (PSN),” said Yudo.

On the other hand, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR and General Chair of the Indonesian Solar Energy Association (AESI), said solar energy development in Indonesia is relatively slow with several obstacles.

“In 2021, only 0.001 percent of its technical potential will be implemented. However, rooftop solar power generation has continued to increase in the last three years, and that is due to the support from government regulations. RUPTL 2021 is a signal to increase five times to 4.7 MW, and there are also other projects such as exports to Singapore, Riau Islands, and Batam. Therefore, this project has the potential for massive solar energy development,” said Fabby Tumiwa.

Fabby also added several reasons for the obstacles to the energy transition in Indonesia, such as the Domestic Component Level (TKDN).

“Problems in project development such as land and regulations on the Domestic Component Level (TKDN); existing projects require solar module devices from 40% to 60%, and this has not been met by industry in Indonesia and has not received financial assistance from the state; negotiations are quite long while other countries tend to be faster. The Vietnamese government has strong political will and commitment, regulation, implementation, and incentives for tariff policies related to net metering. What is also important is the policy certainty and transmission of the State Electricity Company (PLN),” said Fabby.

Kanaka Arifcandang Winoto, the Senior Business Developer from Mainstream Renewable Power, explained how Indonesia needs to accelerate to meet the renewable energy mix target of 23% in 2025.

“Indonesia is the largest energy consumer in ASEAN, accounting for almost 40 percent of ASEAN’s total energy use. With the significant potential of solar, geothermal, wind and hydropower resources, Indonesia is well-positioned to develop in a low-carbon energy system,” he said.

According to Kanaka, Indonesia is a key player in achieving 1.5℃, so cooperation with all stakeholders is needed to identify a national roadmap for realizing economic growth and climate security.

Dyah Roro Esti, Member of the DPR, Commission VII, explained that his party is open to public input, especially on renewable energy policies that are being discussed in the DPR RI.

 “Data from DEN, Indonesia must optimize 2.5 GW, and each area has potential, both solar and wind. Therefore, it is necessary to have the motivation and political will to cooperate with local governments in optimizing and realizing this potential. The House of Representatives (DPR) is working on the New Renewable Energy (EBT) Bill and will be open to suggestions. However, the EBT Bill (RUU) is still under discussion,” explained Dyah Roro.

On the other hand, regarding policies at the regional level, Ngurah Pasek, Head of the Sub-Division of Environment and Regional Development, Bappedalitbang Bali Province, added that Bali has implemented Perda 29 of 2020 concerning the General Plan of Regional Energy (RUED) whose derivative is Pergub 45 of 2019 about Bali Clean Energy.

“Installation to regencies and cities in Bali Province, which currently has reached 8.5 MW. The target of the Bali Provincial Government regarding budget refocusing is how the installation of solar rooftop solar panels in offices or companies can run well,” he said.

The development of rooftop solar power plants is also happening in Central Java. Nathan Setyawan, Sub-Coordinator of Natural Resources and Environment, Central Java Regional Development Planning Agency, explained some progress in supporting renewable energy in his area.

“Central Java is the only province that has developed and integrated economic recovery and the use of renewable energy. In 2021, we will encourage not only provincial governments but also regents and mayors and the private sector to implement rooftop solar power plants.”

He emphasized that increasing public awareness and support from the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources would encourage the use of communal solar power plants in remote areas. In addition, Nathan hopes that the availability of affordable clean energy supporting technology will help develop the local renewable energy industry.

“Hopefully, there will be a mini silicon valley to develop new renewable energy-oriented industries,” he added.***

Sticks with Biofuel Policy

In recent years, the government has been aggressively encouraging the use of biofuel as one of the main alternatives to fuel oil. However, many constraints and impacts on the economic, social, and environmental side arise in this biofuel use program.

The world’s biggest palm oil producer, and exporter, Indonesia, will push ahead with its ambitious biodiesel program even as prices of tropical oil have soared, which could increase the costs of producing biofuel. The B30 program stipulates fossil fuels must be blended with 30% palm oil. The mandate is aimed at soaking up bulging supplies in the top grower. But palm’s premium over gasoil has ballooned to record levels, driven by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine that has tightened global cooking oil supplies.

“We haven’t discussed the evaluated B30 program because it is still running as planned,” Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) said. However, he said that the government could monitor crude palm oil and petroleum prices closely and will prepare options to anticipate any development without elaborating on those plans.

He continued that the problem arises because there are B40 mandates that have been postponed many times, rumors of the B40 loans, and others are skeptical if it is possible to launch B40 mandates in the current situation. But the biofuel strategy must go on because it’s also part of Indonesia energy’s strategy.

Indonesia’s efforts to increase the palm content in biofuel to 40% by 2021 were put on hold due to cheaper fuel costs and record-high palm prices. In addition, raising the blending rate would require the government to provide a significant incentive through the money it collects from palm oil export levies. As a result, road tests for vehicles powered by 40% palm biofuel may be delayed, but discussions on B40 are ongoing.

“Indonesia has several issues in launching the B40 because of the pandemic era. First, in 2020, the oil demands declined. As a result, CPO is lowered, significantly affecting the financial crisis. In 2021, there was uncertainty about the price, and the government didn’t want to give subsidies. The second problem is infrastructure. For example, part of the strategy for increasing biofuel is a refinery prepared by Pertamina in Balongan Refinery, and it’s still in development. But if these problems are solved, all the essential elements of starting the B40 this year make sense,” Fabby said.


The B40 plan was delayed again on high CPO prices, but Indonesia is optimistic about the year 2023 being implemented

Doubts have emerged over Indonesia’s plan to roll out B40-type biofuel this early year as the high price of CPO renders such fuel uneconomical. As a result, the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry has announced a delay in implementing a mandatory 40 percent palm oil-based biodiesel (B40) policy to “prioritize stability” amid rising CPO prices. 

Based on The Jakarta Post’s1 articles on March 29, 2022, Energy Minister Arifin Tasrif said that the government would continue its B30 policy – of 30% palm oil-based biodiesel – in 2022 and devise solutions to maintain the price gap between CPO and biofuel prices. He said that technically B40 is ready to be implemented and is still reviewing whether they’re prepared to produce more CPO. 

“As we know that the B40 program was slated for implementation in July 2021 following the success of the B30 program in 2019, but it was delayed by a year as high CPO prices had made the fuel uneconomical and because of the pandemic condition, but the government had planned to conduct the B40 trial on this year and we optimistic it will be implemented on 2023,” stated Fabby.

Fabby said the government was still committed to escalating the biofuel policy and developing the development plan. As of 28 March 2022, CPO prices had risen 27.5% Year To Date (YTD). The government hopes that increasing the proportion of processed CPO in biofuel would help limit petroleum imports. Indonesia has long been one of the world’s largest crude oil and gasoline fuel importers.

In 2021, the B30 program reduced greenhouse gas emissions by an estimated 25 million tons, and the government studied the technological, economic, regulatory, and supporting industry aspects of implementing B40. Fabby suggested that the government begin implementing the mandatory B40 policy in 2023.


The Future of Biofuel Strategy

The use of biofuel continues to be increased by optimizing the production of domestic biofuels (BBN). With this policy, it is hoped that by 2027 Indonesia will no longer import fuel to save foreign exchange and improve the welfare of oil palm farmers through the mandatory biofuel program.

The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) stated that the implementation of biofuel has been successful for 15 years. However, even in biofuel with a blending rate of 30 percent, some time ago, bioavtur was tested on flights from Bandung to Jakarta and vice versa. It turns out that the results are entirely satisfactory, so it can continue to be improved.

Biofuel would act as the main substitute for petroleum fuel, especially in the transportation sector. However, based on IESR’s study, the future potential of biofuel is highly uncertain due to the rapid development of alternative technologies, especially electric vehicles. The government needs to be prudent in developing the long-term plan for biofuel and putting it under the broader energy transition plan. Increasing the biofuel mandate too aggressively could risk the infrastructure becoming stranded assets. 

The energy strategy tried to integrate biofuel planning with electric vehicle adoption and petroleum refinery development. In addition, to reduce the risk of stranded assets, investment in biofuel could be directed to retrofitting existing plants for co-processing or developing biofuel refineries that are more flexible in product portfolio and transformable to other products.



  1. B40 biodiesel plan delayed again on high CPO prices, 29 March 2022
  2. Critical Review on the Biofuel Development Policy in Indonesia
  3. Energy Intelligent Interview with Fabby Tumiwa 


Regional Leadership Determines Indonesia’s Energy Transition

Jakarta, March 9, 2022 – The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources recorded an increase of 217 MW in mid-2021. This brings the total renewable energy generating capacity in September 2021 to 10,807 MW. Nationally, Indonesia’s energy mix is ​​still dominated by fossil energy up to 85%. The Indonesian government has taken the initiative to accelerate the penetration of renewable energy in the energy mix, one of which is through the RUPTL (Electricity Supply Business Plan) document for 2021 – 2030. In this document, the government targets the addition of electricity from renewable energy plants by 51.6% or 20,923 MW. Cooperation with various parties, including local governments and the private sector is important to achieve the RUPTL targets and accelerate the energy transition in Indonesia. One of the focuses of the Indonesian government is to increase the installed capacity of renewable energy by including rooftop solar in the national strategy program.

Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources, Arifin Tasrif, in his remarks at the Governor’s Forum for Energy Transition, which was held on March 9, 2022 by the National Energy Council in collaboration with the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) emphasized the role of local governments in Indonesia’s energy transition.

“Local governments are expected to make policies that are more in favor of developing new and renewable energy (EBT) and support energy saving efforts. Support can be seen from the Regional Medium Term Development Plan (RPJMD). The RPJMD which is oriented towards energy transition and green energy-based economic acceleration will be a key factor in the success of the energy transition in the regions. The Regional Energy General Plan (RUED) will also be a reference for making energy transitions in the regions.”

A total of 22 provinces have had Perda RUED until March 2022. One of them is Southeast Sulawesi. The Southeast Sulawesi Provincial Government has issued an Appeal Letter to the Governor of Southeast Sulawesi Regarding the Construction of Rooftop PV Installation.

“The government of Southeast Sulawesi has made efforts to encourage investment and development of new and renewable energy through solar PV and geothermal power plants (PLTP), hopefully they will become role models throughout Indonesia,” said the Governor of Southeast Sulawesi, Ali Mazi.

In addition, several regions have a fairly high renewable energy target, such as West Sumatra at 51.7% in 2025. Audy Joinaldy, Deputy Governor of West Sumatra, on the same occasion stated that his party is working on diversifying energy sources and one of the priorities is the installation of rooftop PV.

“Every year we install PV rooftops, especially for households that have not received PLN electricity. The installation of PV rooftops is also carried out in government buildings, as well as floating PV on Lake Singkarak,” he explained.

Audy added that one of the big obstacles for local governments to develop renewable energy is limited access to funding. So it needs assistance from the central government for financial access.

In response, Musri, a member of the National Energy Council, said that the government has issued supporting regulations such as the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources Regulation 26/2021 which is expected to attract consumers to use renewable energy such as rooftop solar power plants, but there are further technical problems such as the PLN network.

“If we talk about the energy mix, of course this is not only from the electricity sector, other sectors such as transportation also play a role. To encourage the energy transition in Indonesia, local wisdom must be encouraged so that the steps taken are in accordance with the potential and the local social context,” Musri explained.

The province located in the eastern part of Indonesia, West Nusa Tenggara, is targeting 25% renewable energy in its energy mix by 2025. Zainal Abe, Head of the ESDM Office of West Nusa Tenggara, explained that his party is currently drafting a Governor’s Regulation on green energy.

“Hopefully in the future, the roofs of government offices, especially the MEMR Office can use rooftop solar panels,” said Zainal.

Energi untuk Memasak Selama #dirumahaja: Tetap Nyaman dengan Energi Bersih Terbarukan 

PT Pertamina baru – baru ini merilis catatan adanya peningkatan konsumsi LPG nonsubsidi rumah tangga di wilayah DKI Jakarta, Jawa Barat, dan Banten secara signifikan (MOR III) dengan adanya penerapan kebijakan dan imbauan physical distancing oleh pemerintah demi mencegah penyebaran dan penularan #Covid19 lebih luas. Aktivitas di rumah, termasuk memasak, meningkat karena anjuran tersebut. Menurut catatan Pertamina, terjadi peningkatan rata-rata konsumsi hingga 23% untuk produk LPG non subsidi Bright Gas 5,5 kg, dan 12 kg di wilayah Cirebon, Indramayu, Majalengka dan Kuningan. Menyikapi hal ini, pemerintah dalam berbagai kesempatan menyatakan bahwa pasokan LPG dipastikan tetap terjaga untuk mengantisipasi kenaikan permintaan dari masyarakat. 

Selain LPG, adakah sumber energi lain yang bisa kita gunakan untuk keperluan memasak di rumah?

Ada alternatif bahan bakar #cleancooking yang selain bersih, juga bisa memanfaatkan sumber energi terbarukan di sekitar kita, yaitu:


Biogas bisa didapatkan dengan memanfaatkan limbah dari kotoran ternak dan sampah/limbah organik yang kemudian difermentasi dan menghasilkan gas untuk menyalakan api pada kompor gas maupun kebutuhan penerangan. 

Mama Seni dari Sumba menggunakan biogas dari kotoran ternak dan bertani dengan slurry (produk sampingan dari biogas), beliau kini telah menjadi petani dan pengusaha perempuan yang sukses di desanya. Di Semarang, Ibu Suwanti menggunakan limbah tahu untuk usaha makanan rumahannya, yang selain menghemat biaya bahan bakar, juga membuat tetangganya senang karena tak lagi mencium bau limbah tahu yang kurang sedap. Dengan menggunakan biogas, kedua perempuan ini mampu menjadi pengusaha yang sukses dan menjadi panutan untuk masyarakat 

Jika ingin mengembangkan biogas mini rumahan yang cocok untuk Anda yang ingin punya biogas tapi tidak memiliki ternak, Yayasan Rumah Energi memberikan contoh penggunaan biogas rumah dalam skala kecil.

Tungku Sehat Hemat Energi (TSHE)

TSHE merupakan teknologi tungku bersih yang menyasar 40% rumah tangga di Indonesia yang masih menggunakan biomassa tradisional untuk memasak (misalnya kayu). Dengan menggunakan kayu cacah, pelet kayu, atau pelet serbuk gergaji; TSHE didesain untuk menghasilkan asap dan partikulat yang lebih sedikit, sehingga polusi dalam ruangan dapat berkurang. Kondisi memasak yang lebih bersih berdampak positif pada perempuan dan anggota keluarga lain, yang selama ini banyak mengalami gangguan kesehatan terkait pernapasan. TSHE juga memanfaatkan bahan organik buangan dari sekitar rumah, misalnya tempurung kelapa, sehingga dapat menghemat biaya energi rumah tangga. 

Sejak 2019, mitra IESR yang tergabung dalam Strategic Partnership Green and Inclusive Energy, yaitu Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indonesia, juga telah melakukan program peningkatan kesadaran masyarakat tentang energi bersih di Jawa Tengah, termasuk salah satunya melatih dan memberdayakan rumah tangga lokal untuk memproduksi TSHE.  

Kompor Surya (Solar Cooker)

Solar cooker merupakan inovasi #cleancooking yang dikembangkan terutama untuk masyarakat di perdesaan yang kesulitan mengakses gas atau listrik, juga untuk mengurangi deforestasi atau penggunaan kayu bakar secara berlebihan. Dengan desain kompor yg memusatkan panas dari matahari, pengguna dapat memasak atau menghangatkan makanan di dalamnya. 

Kompor Listrik dan Kompor Induksi

Kedua jenis kompor ini juga merupakan salah satu pilihan #cleancooking, keduanya menggunakan listrik sebagai sumber energi. Yang perlu diperhatikan adalah daya dan kualitas listrik yang kita miliki, juga keamanan jaringan listrik di rumah; karena daya yang diperlukan kompor ini cukup besar (~1000 Watt).

Nah, lebih bagus lagi jika sumber energi listrik rumah kita berasal dari PLTS atap, agar sumber listrik untuk memasaknya juga bersih dan sekaligus hemat! Baca-baca dulu soal PLTS atap di sini ya:

Jaringan Gas Rumah Tangga (Jargas)

Jargas merupakan jaringan pipa yang dibangun dan dioperasikan untuk penyediaan dan pendistribusian gas bumi bagi rumah tangga. Jargas disalurkan ke rumah tangga dari sumber gas terdekat, sehingga meminimalkan distribusi. Selain itu, penggunaan jargas juga dapat mengurangi impor gas untuk LPG. Memang tidak setiap daerah dapat menjadi sasaran jargas. Informasi lebih lanjut bisa merujuk ke akun media sosial PT Pertamina dan PGN, yang mengoperasikan jargas di Indonesia.

Jangan lupa tetap berhemat energi di rumah ya! 


Salam hangat,

Institute for Essential Services Reform


JawaPos | IESR Dorong Pemanfaatan Batu Bara untuk Kebutuhan Domestik

20 Januari 2020, 18:23:46 WIB – Direktur Eksekutif Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), Fabby Tumiwa menyebutkan bahwa saat ini banyak negara yang berlomba-lomba untuk memanfaatkan cadangan batu bara. Pasalnya, saat ini sedang terjadi transisi dari pemanfaatan energi fosil menjadi energi terbarukan.

“Ada transisi dari fosil fuel ke renewable (atau) energi terbarukan. Negara-negara yang menjadi tujuan ekspor kita beberapa juga punya batu bara, seperti Tiongkok dan India. Negara-negara tersebut juga ingin memanfaatkan batu bara mereka karena mereka tahu waktu pemanfaatan batu bara itu tinggal sedikit,” jelasnya di Balai Kartini, Jakarta, Senin (20/1).

Ia menyebutkan bahwa saat ini, dua negara tersebut tengah melakukan pembatasan ekspor. Tentu mereka ingin memanfaatkan batu bara sebagai energi alternatif di luar gas ataupun liquid natural gas (LNG).

“Jadi, mereka mencoba memodifikasi sumber daya alam, makanya sekarang Tiongkok atau India mengurangi ekspornya. Ini akan menjadi tren baru menurut saya,” tuturnya.

Indonesia diketahui sebagai salah satu pemain batu bara terbesar di dunia. Pada 2019 lalu produksi yang dihasilkan lebih dari 400 juta ton. Padahal, produksi untuk batu bara telah dibatasi oleh Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (ESDM).

“Paling tidak kita bisa melihat dan regulasi itu tidak konsisten, seperti rencana energi nasional itu dengan tegas mengatakan membatasi produksi batu bara 400 juta ton di 2019. Kenapa perlu dibatasi? karena dampak pertambangan itu sangat dahsyat,” terangnya.

Di sisi lain, ada negara-negara yang terus menggenjot ekspor batu bara. “Rusia yang melakukan ekspor di sejumlah bagian di Asia Selatan. Afrika Selatan dan Kolombia juga masuk ke pasar Asia. Artinya produk batu bara Indonesia menghadapi saingan di pasar-pasar yang didominasi oleh Indonesia,” katanya.

Artikel asli

Percepatan pengembangan energi baru dan terbarukan (EBT) terus dilakukan

Kamis, 16 Januari 2020 / 21:00 WIB

KONTAN.CO.ID – JAKARTA. Upaya percepatan pengembangan energi baru dan terbarukan (EBT) terus dilakukan. Salah satunya dengan penerbitan Peraturan Presiden (Perpres) feed in tariff untuk menentukan harga jual EBT berdasarkan biaya produksi energi terbarukan.

Sebelumnya, Kontan sempat mendapat draf Perpres harga penjualan PLTP, PLTA, PLTB, PLTS, PLTBg, PLTBm, dan PLTSa. Di dalam draf tersebut, harga listrik yang dijual perusahaan listrik swasta atau Independent Power Producer (IPP) kepada PT Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Persero) akan mengalami kenaikan dibandingkan saat ini.

Sebagai contoh, harga jual listrik dari PLTP swasta untuk kapasitas 1 megawatt (MW) hingga 10 MW dari tahun ke-1 sampai tahun ke-12 ditetapkan sebesar US$ 14,50 sen per kWh. Sedangkan harga jual listrik tersebut untuk tahun ke-13 sampai tahun ke-30 ditetapkan sebesar US$ 12,90 sen per kWh.

Hingga tulisan ini dimuat, Direktur Jenderal EBTKE Kementerian ESDM FX Sutijastoto belum bisa dimintai keterangan terkait draf Perpres Feed in Tariff EBT.

Sementara itu, Ketua Umum Masyarakat Energi Terbarukan Indonesia (METI) mengaku, draf Perpres Feed in Tariff EBT sebenarnya belum sampai tahap final, sehingga harga jual EBT yang ditetapkan dalam draf tersebut belum tentu sama nantinya.

METI dan beberapa pelaku usaha EBT pun masih akan mengadakan rapat bersama pemerintah. “Besok kami masih akan rapat. Ada beberapa hal yang masih harus didiskusikan,” ujar dia kepada, Kamis (16/1).

Terlepas dari itu, ia menyoroti skema harga staging yang diterapkan pada draf Perpres Feed in Tariff EBT. Dengan skema tersebut, harga jual listrik berbasis EBT terdiri dari dua periode. Di periode pertama, harga EBT ditetapkan lebih tinggi dari rata-rata. Kemudian harga EBT akan mengalami penurunan di periode kedua.

Durasi masing-masing periode bervariasi, tergantung dari masing-masing jenis sumber energi. “Harga EBT juga bisa saja ditetapkan di level yang tinggi di awal untuk mempercepat pengembalian investasi dari pihak pengembang,” terang Surya Darma.

Ambil contoh pada harga jual listrik dari PLTP swasta yang disebutkan tadi. Angka US$ 14,50 sen per kWh yang tertera tentu memiliki berbagai pertimbangan. Misalnya tingkat kesulitan dan teknologi yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun PLTP sehingga mempengaruhi nilai investasi proyek tersebut.

Selama ini, harga jual listrik PLTP merujuk pada Permen ESDM No. 50 Tahun 2017. Di sana tertulis harga pembelian listrik dari PLTP ditetapkan paling tinggi sebesar biaya pokok penyediaan (BPP) pembangkitan di sistem ketenagalistrikan setempat.

Direktur Eksekutif Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR) Fabby Tumiwa menilai, dengan adanya skema harga staging, selama periode pengembalian pinjaman, maka pengembang EBT akan memperoleh harga jual yang lebih tinggi. Baru setelah itu, harga akan diturunkan.

Ia pun menganggap harga EBT di dua periode tersebut dapat memberikan pemerataan tarif dengan tingkat interal rate of return (IRR) yang menarik bagi para pengembang EBT. “Harga yang tinggi membuat arus kas pengembang tidak terganggu selama masa pembayaran utang,” ujar dia, hari ini.

Terlepas dari itu, Fabby berpendapat, jika Perpres Feed in Tariff dirancang dengan benar dan tarif EBT yang ditetapkan memberikan tingkat pengembalian IRR yang cukup, maka seharusnya tidak dibutuhkan lagi insentif lain untuk merangsang investasi di bidang EBT.

Adapun Direktur Eksekutif Asosiasi Produsen Listrik Swasta Indonesia (APLSI) Rizal Calvary menyampaikan, apapun skema penentuan harga EBT nantinya, ia berharap harga tersebut disesuaikan saja dengan nilai keekonomian proyek EBT. “Masing-masing proyek EBT punya keunikan dan dipengaruhi oleh beragam faktor,” tutur dia, Kamis (16/1).

Durasi masing-masing periode bervariasi, tergantung dari masing-masing jenis sumber energi. “Harga EBT juga bisa saja ditetapkan di level yang tinggi di awal untuk mempercepat pengembalian investasi dari pihak pengembang,” terang Surya Darma.

Ambil contoh pada harga jual listrik dari PLTP swasta yang disebutkan tadi. Angka US$ 14,50 sen per kWh yang tertera tentu memiliki berbagai pertimbangan. Misalnya tingkat kesulitan dan teknologi yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun PLTP sehingga mempengaruhi nilai investasi proyek tersebut.

Selama ini, harga jual listrik PLTP merujuk pada Permen ESDM No. 50 Tahun 2017. Di sana tertulis harga pembelian listrik dari PLTP ditetapkan paling tinggi sebesar biaya pokok penyediaan (BPP) pembangkitan di sistem ketenagalistrikan setempat.

Direktur Eksekutif Institute for Essential Service Reform (IESR) Fabby Tumiwa menilai, dengan adanya skema harga staging, selama periode pengembalian pinjaman, maka pengembang EBT akan memperoleh harga jual yang lebih tinggi. Baru setelah itu, harga akan diturunkan.

Ia pun menganggap harga EBT di dua periode tersebut dapat memberikan pemerataan tarif dengan tingkat interal rate of return (IRR) yang menarik bagi para pengembang EBT. “Harga yang tinggi membuat arus kas pengembang tidak terganggu selama masa pembayaran utang,” ujar dia, hari ini.

Terlepas dari itu, Fabby berpendapat, jika Perpres Feed in Tariff dirancang dengan benar dan tarif EBT yang ditetapkan memberikan tingkat pengembalian IRR yang cukup, maka seharusnya tidak dibutuhkan lagi insentif lain untuk merangsang investasi di bidang EBT.

Adapun Direktur Eksekutif Asosiasi Produsen Listrik Swasta Indonesia (APLSI) Rizal Calvary menyampaikan, apapun skema penentuan harga EBT nantinya, ia berharap harga tersebut disesuaikan saja dengan nilai keekonomian proyek EBT. “Masing-masing proyek EBT punya keunikan dan dipengaruhi oleh beragam faktor,” tutur dia, Kamis (16/1).

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Catatan Akhir Tahun: Energi Terbarukan Masih Terseok

Jakarta, 23 Desember 2019

“Kita butuh kepastian investasi, sekian tahun ke depan ada kejelasannya,” kata Gatot S Prawiro, Chief Bussines Development Maxpower Indonesia, satu pengembang energi terbarukan di daerah terpencil, memberikan pandangan.

Dia mengingatkan, apapun regulasi yang pemerintah bikin, pengusaha dan pengembang energi terbarukan memerlukan konsistensi dan kejelasan aturan.

Serupa dikatakan pendiri Xurya, pengembang surya atap, Eka Himawan. Dia bilang, pemerintah tinggal bikin peraturan dan kalau sudah jadi jangan berubah-ubah terus.

“Karena kalo berubah-ubah, bingung. Asumsi berbeda-beda. Kalau investasi kan perlu bikin perencanaan ke depan. Perlu konsisten dengan aturan,” katanya.

Jaya Wahono pendiri dan CEO Clean Power Indonesia juga memberikan pandangan mengenai hal-hal yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dalam pengembangan energi terbarukan di Indonesia, ke depan.

Pertama, memberikan insentif kepada daerah yang aktif mendorong pembangunan energi terbarukan secara masif terutama dalam menggantikan pembangkit listrik tenaga diesel (PLTD).

Kedua, PLN perlu mendapat mandat yang jelas dalam membeli listrik dr sumber energi terbarukan terutama bila bisa menurunkan biayapokok penyediaan (BPP) jangka panjang bukan sekadar BPP tahunan.

Ketiga, PLN wajib menaikkan konsumsi listrik di wilayah-wilayah tertinggal terutama untuk mendorong investasi dan pembukaan lapangan kerja secara masif.

Keempat, bank nasional dapat mandat untuk menyalurkan pendanaan murah bagi pembangunan energi terbarukan di daerah-daerah tertinggal. Ia bisa dengan skema subsidi bunga dan prinsipal pinjaman yang dibiayai dari Badan Pengelola Dana Lingkungan Hidup (BPDLH) yang baru terbentuk.

Kelima, badan usaha yang mempunyai rencana membeli listrik dari sumber energi terbarukan mendapatkan keringanan pajak dan kemudahan membeli dari pengembang langsung tanpa harus melalui PLN.

Medio Desember lalu, Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) meluncurkan Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook (ICEO), sebuah laporan akhir tahun ketiga, mengulas kemajuan pengembangan energi bersih di tanah air, dan meninjau prospek perkembangan pada 2020.

Merujuk laporan ini, tambahan kapasitas terpasang energi terbarukan sebesar 385 MW tahun ini, tak berdampak signifikan terhadap kemajuan pembangunan energi terbarukan dalam mengejar pencapaian target kapasitas 45 GW pada 2025 sesuai target rencana umum energi nasional (RUEN).

Energi terbarukan, salah satu sumber angin, begitu besar di Indonesia, tetapi masih minim dimanfaatkan. Foto: Tommy Apriando/ Mongabay Indonesia

Untuk itu, masih sangat perlu komitmen politik pemerintah yang dituangkan dalam kebijakan dan regulasi progresif serta perbaikan iklim investasi hingga mengakselerasi pembangunan energi bersih di Indonesia. Juga bertransisi menuju sistem energi lebih bersih, kompetitif, dan handal.

Tahun lalu, IESR memperkirakan prospek energi terbarukan stagnan pada 2019 dalam laporan Indonesia Clean Energy Outlook (ICEO) kedua. Dua indikasi yang disampaikan dalam laporan itu, yakni kondisi politik dinamis selama pemilihan umum dan kebijakan serta peraturan tak kondusif. Hal itu setidaknya masih relevan untuk jadi basis penilaian kemajuan pembangunan energi bersih tahun 2020.

Fabby Tumiwa, Direktur IESR saat peluncuran di Jakarta, mengatakan, laporan ICEO tahun ketiga ini lebih rinci menyoroti dua faktor utama yang masih jadi penghambat percepatan pengembangan energi terbarukan di tanah air.

Faktor pertama, bankability dari Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) yang diatur dalam Peraturan Menteri ESDM No. 10 dan No. 50/2017. Aturan ini membuat 27 dari 75 kontrak jual beli listrik (power purchase agreement/PPA) proyek energi terbarukan masih berjuang dalam mencapai financial closed. Bahkan, lima PPA sudah diterminasi pada Oktober 2019.

Kedua, skema insentif bagi proyek energi terbarukan tak kompetitif dan situasi politik serta masa transisi pemerintahan baru mengakibatkan capaian investasi energi terbarukan rendah tahun ini, sebesar US$1,17 miliar dari target US$1,8 miliar atau baru 65% per September 2019. Kontribusi proyek energi panas bumi, US$0.52 juta, jadi andalan pemerintah dari total capaian investasi itu.

“Secara umum, total investasi energi terbarukan ini masih sangat kecil untuk mencapai target bauran energi dalam RUEN tahun 2025 yang diperkirakan memerlukan investasi US$70-US$90 miliar.”

Selain itu, dalam hal investasi energi terbarukan, Indonesia berkompetisi dengan sesama negara ASEAN lain, terutama Vietnam, Malaysia, Filipina dan Thailand.

Dalam tiga tahun terakhir, negara-negara ini mengalami kenaikan kapasitas pembangkit energi terbarukan yang cukup tinggi ditandai dengan arus investasi mengalir dari luar.

“Di era energi terbarukan, semua negara punya sumber daya energi terbarukan relatif setara dan dapat dikembangkan,” kata Fabby.

Investor punya pilihan cukup banyak dan leluasa memilih negara yang memberikan pengembalian investasi menarik dan risiko kecil. Dengan kondisi ini, kualitas kebijakan dan regulasi akan menentukan daya saing Indonesia menarik investasi energi terbarukan, khusus investasi asing.

Di sektor efisiensi energi, kata Fabby, usaha-usaha mencapai target penurunan intensitas energi final sebesar 1% per tahun, harus lebih fokus kepada tiga sektor kunci yang menyumbang konsumsi energi terbesar: transportasi, industri, dan rumah tangga. Dari 2013-2018, ketiga sektor ini tercatat sebagai sektor yang mendominasi 44%, 33%, dan 15% secara berturut-turut dari konsumsi energi final.

Akselerasi penggunaan kendaraan listrik, peningkatan konservasi energi di sektor industri, dan perbaikan standar serta pelabelan energi untuk peralatan listrik rumah tangga, jadi beberapa opsi yang teridentifikasi dalam laporan ICEO dalam meningkatkan usaha-usaha di sektor ini.

Sumber: KESDM

2020, tahun penentu

Meskipun demikian, IESR juga mengidentifikasi tiga hal yang cukup progresif tahun ini. Pertama, ada peningkatan dan minat penggunaan pembangkit listrik surya atap yang makin dilirik oleh kementerian, lembaga, dan badan usaha di tingkat pusat dan daerah, pelaku usaha industri, bangunan komersial dan residensial.

Kedua, konsumsi biodiesel juga meningkat seiring program B20 yang digalakan sejak awal 2019. Ketiga, sektor transportasi, ada Peraturan Presiden No. 55/2019 tentang kendaraan listrik mengisyaratkan komitmen dan dukungan politik kuat dalam mengembangkan teknologi baru ini di tanah air.

Selain membahas status dan perkembangan energi bersih pada 2019, laporan ini juga menyimpulkan pada 2020 sebagai momentum penentu dan titik balik mengejar ketertinggalan. Baik dalam mencapai target-target di tanah air, maupun kemajuan energi terbarukan pada tingkat regional.

“Pemerintah perlu memperhatikan sejumlah hal,” kata Jannata Giwangkara, Manajer Program Tranformasi Energi IESR.

Pertama, kabinet dan konfigurasi posisi baru di kementerian dan lembaga terkait harus bisa mendapatkan kembali kepercayaan investor di kuartal pertama 2020.

Caranya, dengan memberikan sinyal politik dan rencana aksi terperinci yang tertuang dalam perbaikan kebijakan dan regulasi dalam mempercepat pembangunan energi terbarukan dan implementasi efisiensi energi.

Perbaikan itu, katanya, mencakup reintroduksi feed in tariff (FiT), ada instrumen pendanaan khusus untuk proyek energi terbarukan skala kecil misal di bawah 10 MW, penerapan skema lelang terbalik (reverse auction) untuk proyek energi terbarukan skala utilitas. Juga, alokasi risiko adil antara independent power producer (IPP) dan PLN, dan perbaikan-perbaikan kebijakan dalam mendorong implementasi efisiensi energi.

Perbaikan itu, katanya, seperti penerapan mandatori manajemen energi ke lebih banyak perusahaan di setiap sektor industri, transportasi, dan bangunan, dan penerapan standar kinerja energi minimum (SKEM) untuk peralatan listrik yang lebih banyak dan standar lebih tinggi.

Seorang pekerja di PLTS Kayubihi, Bangli, Bali. PLTS ini merupakan yang pertama dibangun di Indonesia pada 2012. Foto : Anton Muhajir/Mongabay Indonesia

Kedua, berbagai inisiatif terkait energi bersih oleh aktor non-pemerintah dan pemerintah daerah perlu terus didukung dan difasilitasi. Lebih 200 perusahaan multinasional, 40 beroperasi di Indonesia, adalah anggota RE100 dengan pendapatan gabungan hingga US$4,5 triliun. Mereka kini berkomitmen gunakan 100% energi terbarukan di seluruh fasilitas operasional global pada 2030.

Peraturan yang mengatur implementasi power wheeling (akses terbuka penggunaan transmisi jaringan oleh swasta), katanya, dapat jadi pilihan untuk menyelesaikan akses listrik terbarukan perusahaan RE100 dan lain-lain.

Kemudian, kata Jannata, hambatan-hambatan seperti perencanaan, pembiayaan, dan koordinasi dengan PLN dalam implementasi inisiatif-inisiatif di pemerintah daerah harus dapat tertangani. Dengan begitu, bisa merealisasikan berbagai inisiatif jadi proyek nyata.

Ketiga, perlu lebih dari sekadar peraturan untuk memulai revolusi surya dan kendaraan listrik. “Kedua teknologi ini kami proyeksikan dapat jadi pionir penggerak dalam transisi menuju energi bersih di tanah air.”

Proses akuisisi lahan cukup menyulitkan, skema pendanaan kurang atraktif, transparansi proses pengadaan kurang dan timeline tak menentu. Juga, pengembangan industri manufaktur surya yang status quo merupakan beberapa hambatan utama yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dalam merevolusi energi surya.

Sedangkan, dalam memulai industri dan meningkatkan penetrasi kendaraan listrik dengan cepat perlu insentif fiskal, antara lain, pembebasan pajak kendaraan listrik dan pembangunan infrastruktur pengisian listrik agresif, minimal 30.000 Stasiun Pengisian Kendaraan Listrik Umum (SPKLU) sebelum 2025.

“Presiden Jokowi harus menyadari, Indonesia sedang diamati dunia dalam memerangi krisis iklim melalui pengembangan energi terbarukan dan transisi menuju sistem energi bersih,” kata Fabby.

Lima tahun ini, katanya, Indonesia menyia-nyiakan kesempatan jadi jawara energi terbarukan di ASEAN. Saat ini, Indonesia jauh tertinggal dibandingkan negara-negara tetangga, padahal memiliki ragam sumber daya energi terbarukan.

“Saat ini, kita Indonesia bukan primadona investor energi bersih, tapi bisa kalau ada transformasi yang revolusioner melalui kebijakan dan regulasi serta insentif yang disediakan pemerintah,” katanya.

Sumber: KEDSM

Untuk itu, IESR kembali mendesak Jokowi agar menunjukkan komitmen politik dan memimpin pengembangan energi bersih di Indonesia. Presiden, katanya, perlu memberikan instruksi jelas dan kuat kepada kementerian sektoral dan lembaga terkait dalam mempercepat pengembangan dan mendorong investasi energi terbarukan.

Halim Sari Wardana, Sekretaris Dirjen EBTKE Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (KESDM) mengatakan, KESDM bersungguh-sungguh mencapai target pembangunan berkelanjutan ketujuh, yakni soal pemenuhan energi merata dan adil.

Lima hal jadi sasaran pemerintah dalam mencapai pembangunan berkelanjutan itu, dengan memenuhi kebutuhan listrik lewat program 35.000 Megawatt melalui energi terbarukan, biodiesel untuk menurunkan gas rumah kaca, penggunaan gas untuk keperluan pariwisata. Juga, kebijakan batubara untuk dalam negeri dan edukasi masyarakat dalam mendukung kebijakan pemerintah.

Meski begitu, Halim membenarkan peran energi fosil dalam pemenuhan kebutuhan energi masih signifikan. “KESDM fokus pada keadilan energi dengan harga yang terjangkau,” katanya.

Saat ini, anggaran KESDM masih banyak untuk pembangunan infrastruktur jaringan gas kota, converter kit untuk nelayan dan lampu tenaga surya hemat energi. Selain untuk pembangunan sumur bor buat kebutuhan air bersih di daerah yang sulit air serta subsidi belanja sektor produktif.

Halim bilang, pemerintah juga fokus pengembangan kendaraan listrik terutama untuk Jawa yang kapasitas listrik berlebih.

Pemerintah, katanya, menyadari pengembangan energi terbarukan sangat menjanjikan di Indonesia. Untuk itu, mengacu kebijakan energi nasional (KEN), pemerintah bikin mandatori biodiesel dan bioethanol, perencanaan pembangunan 12 PLTSa di 12 daerah terpilih dan dukungan untuk PLTS.

“Reformasi di KESDM juga memberikan kemudahan lewat perizinan online yang terintegrasi dengan data sumber daya alam.”

Halim menegaskan, pemerintah menyadari meningkatan bauran energi terbaru akan meningkatkan stabilitas ekonomi karena sumber energi tak bergantung neraca perdagangan internasional.

Saat ini, katanya, pemerintah merevisi sejumlah aturan yang dinilai menghambat investasi energi terbarukan.

Menghadapi proyek energi terbarukan yang tak bankable, kata Halim, pemerintah fokus menyajikan data potensi lebih akurat dan valid.

“Jadi, peluang investasi ada dukungan data.”

Tak hanya potensi, pemerintah juga akan memfasilitasi pasar ataupermintaan, misal, dengan pembangunan eko wisata yang gunakan energi terbarukan.

Operasional Intake PLTA Singkarak di nagari Guguk Malalo, Tanah Datar. Foto : Riko Coubut

Soal aturan

Harris, Direktur Aneka Energi Terbarukan KESDM, menambahkan, salah satu regulasi sedang revisi pemerintah yakni Permen 50/2017 tentang pemanfaat sumber energi terbarukan.

Meski tercatat ada 75 kontrak di bawah permen ini, kata Harris, tak semua murni hasil regulasi ini. Beberapa kontrak itu, katanya, hasil penunjukan langsung.

Setelah berjalan dua tahun, kata Harris, pemerintah menyadari ada aspek menghambat investasi dalam permen ini. Penggunaan biaya pokok pembangkitan (BPP) bermasalah untuk sejumlah daerah dengan BPP rendah.

“Untuk BPP tinggi tidak masalah,” katanya.

Untuk Jawa, misal, dengan acuan 7 sen dolar Amerika Serikat per kWh tak memungkinkan pengembangan panas bumi karena biaya pokok pembangkitan lebih mahal.

“Untuk PLTS dengan reverse auction (skema lelang terbalik berdasarkan harga terendah) bisa, tapi nggak banyak.”

Sisi lain, pemerintah juga tahu, negara tetangga makin kompetitif untuk investasi energi terbarukan. Dia sebutkan, Kamboja, bisa menetapkan harga 3,6 sen dolar AS untuk PLTS.

Kabar baiknya, lelang PLTS di Bali Barat dan Bali Timur, saat ini ada yang menawarkan harga 5,8 sen dolar AS per kWh. Selain itu, PLTS apung di Cirata juga akan memasuki jual beli listrik atau power purchase agreement (PPA) bulan depan.

Kalau PLTS Cirata dengan kapasitas 145 megawatt beroperasi target 46 megawatt pada 2019 dapat tercapai bahkan tiga kali lipat.

Selain BPP, kata Harris, kontrak energi terbarukan membuat investasi energi terbarukan hingga tahun ini tak bankable.

Saat ini, KESDM sedang menyiapkan peraturan presiden yang mengatur pengembangan energi terbarukan. Dalam rancangan aturan yang digodok KESDM, pemerintah hendak kembali menerapkan skema feed in tarrif (FiT), yang pernah berlaku pada 2015-2016. FiT akan berlaku untuk pembangkit energi terbarukan dengan kapasitas hingga 10 megawatt. Khusus PLTA skema FIT juga dipakai untuk kapasitas hingga 20 megawatt.

Untuk pembangkit lebih dari kapasitas itu berlaku negosiasi antara pengembang dengan PLN. Untuk pembangkit lebih 20 mw negosiasi antara PLN pusat dengan pengembang, dan pembangkit kurang 10 megawatt negosiasi dengan PLN wilayah.

Selain itu, kata Harris, berbagai kendala teknis pembangunan pembangkit energi terbarukan juga akan terakomodir dalam regulasi baru ini, antara lain, PLTA garapan Kementerian PUPR yang mandek karena tak bisa menjual listrik ke PLN dan penyediaan lahan untuk PLTS yang kerap jadi kendala.

Dia berharap, dengan perpres ini, kendala lintas kementerian dan lembaga bisa teratasi. Hal ini luput terakomodir dalam permen.

Pemerintah optimis dengan perpres ini akan menyelesaikan kendala listrik dari energi terbarukan yang mahal. Pengalaman dari PLTB Sidrap 75 megawatt, kalau mula-mula harga jual listrik mencapai 11 sen dolar AS, karena tak ada biaya infrastruktur, tahap kedua PLTB ini bisa kurang 7 sen dolar AS.

“Proses (perpres) masih berjalan. Kami sudah komunikasikan draf-nya dengan menteri,” kata Harris.

Sumber: KESDM
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Indonesia ‘must stop building new coal plants by 2020’ to meet climate goals

2 December 2019

JAKARTA — Indonesia must stop building new coal-fired power plants by 2020 if it wants to do its part to cap global warming under the targets of the Paris climate agreement, new analysis shows.

The country is one of the few still actively planning and constructing new plants, putting it on a trajectory to miss its climate commitments, aimed at limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels and achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.

In an analysis of four scenarios, carried out by the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), a Jakarta-based think tank, only one would see Indonesia contribute to those goals — and it starts with scrapping the dozens of coal-fired power plants being built or planned.

Achieving that goal, the IESR says, “would require that there are fewer coal plants installed capacity in Indonesia,” including “no more coal plants … built after 2020.”

“The 1.5 [degree] scenario would even need 2 gigawatts less of coal plant installed capacity from current existing capacity by 2020, meaning coal plant phase-out should happen this year,” it adds.

That scenario sees burning of coal phased out altogether by 2048 and the country’s total emissions peak by 2028 at 274 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) before declining to zero by 2048.

A second, less stringent, scenario projects capping global warming at 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels. It too would require stopping building new coal-fired power plants by 2020.

The other scenarios are less ambitious in scope, such as retiring coal plants older than 30 years, and improving the efficiency of existing plants. But these scenarios would mean Indonesia falling short of its climate commitments and contributing to a global temperature rise of 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (3.6 to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit).

And even then, said IESR executive director Fabby Tumiwa, “we still won’t reach net-zero emissions” by 2050.

The Cilacap coal power plant is located near a port for local fishermen. Image by Tommy Apriando/Mongabay-Indonesia.

Coal building spree

A landmark report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) last year warned that the world had until 2030 to cap global warming at 1.5 degrees Celsius to avoid catastrophic climate change impacts. In practice, this means global greenhouse gas emissions will have to drop by half over the next 10 years and reach net-zero around mid-century.

Much of Indonesia’s emissions to date have come from deforestation and land use change, particularly the burning of carbon-rich peatlands to make way for plantations of oil palm, pulpwood, and rubber. But under the current administration’s ambitious energy push, emissions from electricity generation are poised to dominate.

The country’s energy consumption growth is among the fastest in the world, and the government is relying mostly on coal-fired plants to feed that demand. In 2018, coal accounted for 60 percent of Indonesia’s energy mix.

Under the government’s latest electricity procurement plan, the installed capacity of coal plants in the country is expected to nearly double over the next decade from the current 28 gigawatts. Thirty-nine coal-fired power plants are currently under construction, and 68 have been announced, which will maintain coal’s dominance of the energy mix at nearly 55 percent by 2025.

Of six new power plants expected to go online this year, three are fired by coal. (The other three are small-capacity facilities powered by natural gas, hydro and solar, respectively.)

This trajectory risks trapping Indonesia in a high-carbon economy, says the IESR’s Fabby, because once a coal plant is built, it can remain in operation for up to 50 years.

“If we build fossil fuel infrastructure today, the emissions for the next half a century will be locked,” he said. “It’s estimated that our emissions from power plants will be at 700 to 800 million tons of CO2 in 2030.”

Coal spill from July 2018 along a beach in Indonesia’s Aceh province in Sumatra. Image by Junaidi Hanafiah/Mongabay-Indonesia.

Regional outlier

Indonesia’s coal plant building spree makes the country an outlier in Southeast Asia, where governments are increasingly taking a stand against the fossil fuel. Recent analysis by the Global Energy Monitor (GEM) identifies Indonesia as the only country in the region to build new coal energy infrastructure in the first half of 2019.

Thailand in January removed two major coal plants, the 800-megawatt Krabi and 2,200 MW Thepa facilities, from its energy development plan. It also shelved the 3,200 MW Thap Sakae project due to community resistance. The country’s plan also reduces the share of coal in the energy mix from 25 percent envisaged in the previous plan to just 12 percent.

Instead, Thailand is making a major pivot toward clean energy, announcing an ambitious plan to build the world’s largest floating solar farms to power Southeast Asia’s second-largest economy.

In the Philippines, which faces a similar challenge to Indonesia of meeting fast-growing demand for cheap electricity, President Rodrigo Duterte recently called on his department of energy to fast-track the development of renewable energy and reduce dependence on coal. In practice, however, the government still hasn’t issued an executive mandate that would compel the energy department to change its coal-dependent roadmap. And in October, Duterte inaugurated the country’s 21st coal-fired power plant.

And while the region as a whole is home to three of the world’s top 10 biggest networks of planned coal power plants, construction of new plants in Southeast Asia has actually fallen dramatically since peaking at 12,920 MW new installed capacity in 2016, according to the GEM. In 2018, only 2,744 MW of new coal-fired capacity entered into construction.

Christine Shearer, the director of the GEM’s coal program, said coal had become increasingly less attractive for investors in Southeast Asia.

“Coal power is facing something of a perfect storm,” she said. “Communities are rejecting it due to the high levels of pollution, renewable energy technology is undercutting it in terms of quality and cost, and financial institutions are backing away fast, making funding an increasing challenge for coal proponents.”

A worker walking by rows of solar panels at the Kayubihi Power Plant in Bangli, Bali. The Kayubihi Power Plant is the only solar-powered plant operating in Bali out of a total of three plants. Image by Anton Muhajir/Mongabay Indonesia.

Lack of renewable-friendly policies

While the IESR analysis makes clear that Indonesia must begin phasing out coal power as soon as possible if it wants to contribute to the global climate effort, Fabby said doing so will be challenging without a clear exit strategy. He noted that coal mining is an industry that generates significant revenue and jobs for several provinces.

“Of course coal power plants can’t just be closed down, because there’s going to be economic and financial consequences,” Fabby said. “We need energy transition. We also need to anticipate the economic consequences that might happen.”

While the government plans to increase the share of renewables in the energy mix from 7 percent at present to 23 percent by 2025, progress has been sluggish. There are currently no carbon disincentives to encourage investment in renewable energy, while coal-fired power plants continue to receive hefty subsidies.

The government has hitched its renewable wagon to biofuel made with palm oil — a controversial decision, given the deforestation attendant in the production of much of the country’s palm oil.

Fabby pointed to a key omission in the renewable transition for Indonesia, the only country in Asia that lies on the equator: solar power, which remains largely unexploited.

“What we need is the political will,” he said. “For example, Vietnam, in a matter of 12 months they built 4.5 GW of solar. Countries like Vietnam can do it. The key is for the government [in Indonesia] to have the political will, feed-in tariffs and [attractive] prices so that investors can enter.”

Vietnam has turned into a solar power champion in the region, hitting its solar target six years early thanks to the government’s feed-in tariff that ensures a price of 9.35 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour — thereby giving producers a financial incentive to invest in the sector.

As a result, Vietnam is experiencing a solar boom, with energy consultant Wood Mackenzie predicting the country’s installed solar capacity will reach 5.5 GW by the end of 2019, representing 44 percent of the total for Southeast Asia.

Last year, Vietnam’s installed solar capacity was just 0.134 GW.

Indonesia can also look to India’s transition as an example, said Lauri Myllyvirta, the lead analyst at the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA). Both countries share similar demographics and a reliance on coal in their energy mix. India, however, has had greater success developing its renewables and easing away from coal, thanks to competitive auctions, according to Myllyvirta.

“So you make renewable energy providers compete for the lowest price and scale up the industry to bring down cost,” he said.

But with no policies in place in Indonesia to bring down the cost of renewables, development of clean energy alternatives will remain expensive, he said.

“If I drink a cup of coffee or eat rice in Australia, the cost is 10 times more expensive [than in Indonesia],” Myllyvirta said. “But if I want to build a solar PV, it’s more expensive in Indonesia. So we can see that the condition [for renewables] in Indonesia isn’t optimal yet. And this isn’t caused by geographical condition, because Indonesia has a lot of sun.”

Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, a former energy adviser to the Indonesian government and now head of the IESR-affiliated Indonesia Clean Energy Forum (ICEF), agreed that Indonesia risked being left behind in the global transition from coal to renewables without a drastic change in its policies.

“There needs to be a regulation that’s revolutionary,” he said as quoted by local media. “In a short time, coal will become the enemy of the world. Yet Indonesia still depends on coal for its power plants. This has to change immediately.”

Note: This article is adapted from an article published on Nov. 10, 2019, at our Indonesian website:


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