IESR: Indonesia Needs Economic Transformation in Coal-Produced Regions

press release

Jakarta, 11 July 2022The demand for coal as a long-term energy source is predicted to decrease significantly. This trend is affected by stronger climate commitment from coal-imported countries to shift into renewable energy. Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR) in its study even said that if the government’s commitment to reducing emissions was following the Paris Agreement to achieve net-zero emission by 2050, then in 2045, coal would no longer be utilized in Indonesia’s energy system. It demands the government’s commitment to preparing the economic transformation and employment for regions whose income is dominated by the coal sector.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR said that the enhancement of emissions target in Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) from countries that utilize coal, such as China, Japan, South Korea, United States, Europe Union, South Africa, and other countries, will affect the reduction to fossil energy projects’ funding. Referring to the Paris Agreement, if whole countries adopt a more aggressive coal phase-out, then in 2030, coal production will drop by 20%, 30% in 2040, and 90% in 2050.

“This production reduction should be anticipated due to the impact on employment and will also affect the national and coal-produced regions’ income. This threat is quite serious considering coal-produced regions do not have many choices for their economic alternative while carrying out post-coal mining economic transformation will take a long time. Now is the time to make a transformation and prepare the foundation to conduct post-coal mining and post-coal power plant economic transformation. The failure to succeed in economic transformation will not only cause a higher unemployment rate but also the decline in economic competitiveness,” said Fabby.

He added that coal-produced regions need to be supported with a particular national policy. IESR even recommended this issue should be prioritized and included in forming RPJMN 2024-2029.

Julius Christian, the author of the IESR study titled Redefining Future Jobs: The implication of the coal phase-out to the employment sector and economic transformation in Indonesia’s coal regions urged the central and coal-produced regions in Indonesia to anticipate the possibility of income reduction and employment opportunities for the workers from the coal sector.

“Collaboration between the central and regional government will be an important note in preparing the long-term economic strategy to realize a more diverse economic structure and no longer depend on coal,” Julius explained.

In 2020, there were approximately 250.000 workers who directly worked in the mining sector. These workers, in general, are aged under 50 years old. Therefore they still could be prepared with various types of training to shift to other employment sectors. Besides, the government also needs to prepare the allowance and social safety net to anticipate the rapid decline in coal demand.

“Coal workers are one of the most impacted groups from this coal decline. However, currently, the workers have not realized the risk they will be facing and have not been included in all energy transition discourse,” added Julius.

Ronald Suryadi, a researcher at IESR who is also writing the report Redefining Future Job, also said that economic transformation needs to be addressed for Indonesia’s provinces that its Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) is mainly gained from the coal sector, such as North Kalimantan that produces 48% national coal supply, South Kalimantan (32%), South Sumatra (9%), North Kalimantan (3%), and Central Kalimantan (3%).

“A gradual economic transformation is not only needed to mitigate the resulting impact, but also to achieve an economic structure that can keep up with the current development in the future,” said Ronald.

IESR pushes for an inclusive planning and strategy formulation process by involving the affected groups, especially the workers and the community around mining areas. The purpose is that economic transformation will be carried out sustainably and correspond to people’s needs. For instance, economic transformation in the coal area can be carried out by modernizing the agricultural sector. Besides, the government also needs to strengthen the existing main industries with a high multiplier effect, such as the food and chemical industries. In addition, the preparation to establish an economy that is centralized on services can be implemented by building infrastructure, restoring the environment, and intensifying human resources.

The IESR study ‘Redefining Future Jobs’ can be downloaded at ***

C20 Indonesia Urge for a Just Energy Transition

Jakarta, 30 June 2022 – Energy transition is one of the priority issues of Indonesia’s 2022 G20 presidency. This role as the leader of the G20 countries is certainly a strategic momentum for Indonesia to show its commitment to the energy transition. The Paris Agreement in 2015 agreed to limit the earth’s temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius, even trying to keep it at the level of 1.5 degrees. For this reason, all parties must reduce their emissions from high-emission sectors such as energy and achieve carbon neutral status by the middle of this century.

To explore various perspectives on energy transition, the Civil 20 engagement group held a workshop entitled “Making a Just Energy Transition for All” inviting other engagement groups i.e: Think 20 (T20), Science 20 (S20) and Business 20 (B20). Also present as a panelist, Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja, former governor of Indonesia for OPEC.

From the ongoing discussion, all the speakers agreed to put the human aspect as the axis of the energy transition. Vivian Sunwoo Lee, International Coordinator of C20, said that C20 continues to urge the importance of immediately shifting from fossil-based energy systems to renewable energy-based energy systems.

“There are a number of risks, especially from a financial and economic perspective, from fossil energy infrastructure that has the potential to become a stranded asset if we don’t hurry to make the energy transition,” he said. Vivian also highlighted the large fossil energy subsidies that are still being provided by the G20 countries.

Professor Yunita Winarto, co-chair of Task Force 5 S20 stated the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in planning and implementing energy transitions.

“The interdisciplinary approach will shift the paradigm from exploitative-extractive to environmentally friendly-resilient, from a linear economy to a circular economy, and from good governance to proper governance. That way, a balance will undoubtedly be created according to the principles of the planet, people, & prosperity for all,” Yunita explained.

Moekti H. Soejachmoen, Lead co-chair of Task Force 3 T20, explained the importance of the carbon economic value instrument in the context of energy transition.

“The growth in energy demand will definitely continue to grow. It is inevitable, so we have to look for various ways to fulfill this energy need, but on the other hand our need to reduce emissions is also achieved. So this carbon economic value instrument is important,” explained Moekti.

Moekti also added that it was important for Indonesia to ensure that the issues pushed in this year’s G20 presidency would still be discussed in the following years. Given the energy transition is a long process and takes years.

The energy transition will completely change the face of Indonesia’s energy sector. Oki Muraza, Policy Manager of the Task Force Energy Sustainability and Climate, B20, explained that the affordability factor should be one of the main considerations in making the energy transition.

“We have to ensure that the affordability factor of energy during this transition process can be maintained. In addition, we also need to pay attention to people who are currently working in the hydrocarbon sector, how they can be trained so they don’t lose their jobs in the energy transition,” explained Oki.

Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja reminded that it is necessary to harmonize perceptions, rules and policies at the ministry level related to energy transition and the achievement of Indonesia’s commitments in the international level such as NDC. This is in addition to accelerating the achievement of national and international targets, as well as to give the same signal to investors.

“If the signals sent to investors are mixed, the perception of investors is that the risk of investing in Indonesia is high, and it is not impossible to make them reconsider investing,” said Widhyawan.

Indonesia’s Triumph in the Next 30 Years Against the Climate Crisis, Decided Now

Jakarta, 4 December 2021-“Everyone has used solar panels, and there are electric motors too. The air feels so fresh!” said Kiara in Kiara’s Dream which describes the environment of Indonesia in 2050. This dream should be the general dream of the Indonesian people, notably the policymakers whose decision will determine the journey of the Indonesian.

The success of Indonesia in 2050 as Kiara’s description depends  on the Indonesian government’s strategy in preparing and providing a better planet for future generations. The step to reach it must start from now by making an energy transition, switching from fossil energy to renewable energy.

President Jokowi in his briefing to the Commissioners and Directors of Pertamina and PLN, even emphasized that the energy transition could not be delayed any longer. Jokowi firmly asked his staff to immediately prepare a concrete, compact, detailed grand design of energy transition. Jokowi said that welcoming the energy transition era, all sectors need to change by developing renewable energy instead of fossil fuels. This is part of the global movement to tackle the climate crisis.

The climate crisis has been a common enemy for years. The struggle against it has been set in the Paris Agreement in 2015 agreed by 197 countries. Each country tries to keep its emissions as low as possible to keep the earth’s temperature well below 1.5 degrees Celsius after pre-industrial times.

Until COP 26 in Glasgow ended on November 13, 2021, as many as 137 countries already had a carbon neutral target of 2050-2070. Indonesia is targeting carbon neutrality by 2060 or sooner with international support. However, these efforts were considered insufficient to limit the earth’s temperature. The results from the Climate Action Tracker state that even with the country’s commitment to achieving carbon neutrality in the 2050-2070 timeframe, the earth will still be heated at 2.5-2.7 degrees Celsius in 2100.

Regrettably, as one of the largest emission contributors in the world, particularly in the forestry & land sector and the energy sector, Indonesia has not yet set ambitious steps in combating climate change. Although taking a positive commitment to the early retirement of 9.2 GW of coal-fired power plants, according to the Institute for Essential Services Reform (IESR), at least a total of 10.5 GW of coal-fired power plants must be retired before 2030 to be in line with the Paris Agreement.

To urge the Indonesian government to be bolder in its efforts to mitigate the climate crisis demands the role of Indonesian people, including young people. IESR through the Clean, Affordable, and Secure Energy for Southeast Asia (CASE) project in collaboration with AIESEC UI at the Global Impact Conference, which was attended by youth across countries underlined the important and impactful things that youth can do, including by sharing information about the energy sector as the second-largest greenhouse gas emission contributor after forestry and land.

“Awareness of the damaging impact of fossil energy to the earth will encourage people to have responsible behavior towards energy consumption, for instance by saving energy,” said Agus Tampubolon (blue tshirt), CASE Project Manager, IESR.

Furthermore, every Indonesian citizen has a significant part in resolving the quality of life for their children and grandchildren by choosing leaders who have a vision and mission to realize low emission development and massive use of renewable energy, both at regional and national levels.

Agus added that to accelerate the energy transition process systematically, local governments play its key in setting a high target for achieving renewable energy in the Regional Energy General Plan (RUED). Local governments must have a detailed mapping of the technical potential of renewable energy in their area, build networks, and prepare relevant regulations to attract more investment in renewable energy in their area. Thus, Kiara’s Dream, our dream, and the dreams of future generations can come true.


Climate Change: An all aspects of life crisis requires all parties participation

Jakarta, 19 October 2021 – Two weeks before the Conference of the Parties (COP) 26 in Glasgow, climate issues are widely discussed in Indonesia, one of which is to raise public voices and provide input to the Indonesian government, which is planned to be attended by President Joko Widodo to increase Indonesia’s climate ambitions.

Indonesia has renewed its climate commitments through the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) document which is complemented by the LTS-LCCR (Long Term Strategy – Low Carbon Climate Resilience) document. In terms of numbers, Indonesia did not raise its ambition any further, namely to stay at 29% with its own efforts and 41% with international assistance. Indonesia is also committed to becoming net-zero emissions by 2060 or sooner. Unfortunately, this effort is not enough to bring Indonesia to keep the earth’s average temperature increase of no more than 1.5 degrees Celsius.

In a webinar entitled “Towards COP26: Climate change and the role of the public in preserving the earth”, Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of the Institute of Essential Services Reform (IESR) explained that since the 1880s Indonesia has always been included in the top 10 largest emitting countries (Carbon Brief).

“We should see this responsibility to reduce emissions not as a burden but also as an opportunity to carry out a low-carbon economic transformation. The results of the IESR study show that decarbonization in 2050 will actually bring greater economic benefits, because in addition to creating new industrial opportunities and greater employment, Indonesia’s energy prices will be more affordable as well as social and economic benefits that can be felt such as cleaner air and reduce the threat of hydrometeorological disasters due to climate change,” explained Fabby.

Muhamad Ali Yusuf, Chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) Disaster Management and Climate Change Institute, explained that in terms of religious-based community organizations communicating the issue of climate change is challenging because the public in general will care about the problems that are in front of their eyes, so we need down to earths and contextual way to talk about climate change in the community.

“On the other hand, our religious discourse is still far from ecological issues such as climate change. Even if it already exists, it has not become a priority issue. So actually literacy on climate change is also necessary for religious leaders,” he explained.

Executive Secretary for Witness and Integrity of Creation, Communion of Indonesian Churches (PGI), Pastor Jimmy Sormin added that religious leaders and figures have a strategic role to influence the views and behavior of the people and have a significant impact on influencing people’s mindsets and perspectives.

“So you must be creative to convey climate change,” explained Pastor Jimmy.

Information on climate change must be disseminated to the wider community without exception, because when the impacts of climate change such as hydrometeorological disasters appear, all residents will be affected.

Mike Verawati, Secretary General, Indonesian Women’s Coalition, explained that women are the ones most affected by climate change because our policies and systems are not inclusive. Citizens’ needs are seen as neutral needs.

“Climate, infrastructure, and nature issues are usually considered as big narratives or masculine issues, so in the end this issue is considered not a women’s issue even though they know the details and are actively advocating, even though sometimes they can’t explain it scientifically,” explained Mike.

Not only women but young people also need to be involved in policy-making efforts to tackle climate change. As the generation that will live in the future, it is these young people who will bear the impact of the climate crisis that is not taken seriously in the future.

“The Indonesian government already has a commitment to reduce emissions, become net-zero by 2060, and overcome the climate crisis. However, this commitment is not enough to overcome this climate crisis, several policy products issued by the government such as the Minerba Law, Food Estate, and the Omnibus Law are counter-productive to efforts to tackle the climate crisis,” explained Melissa Kowara, Extinction Rebellion Indonesia’s Activist.

Melissa also highlighted the lack of literacy about climate change for the wider community. This makes people seem silent or passive because they do not understand the context.

The G20 is Progressing yet far from the 1.5 degree Plan

2021 is marked as the year of the rebound of emission especially in the G20 countries as the economic and social activity is restarting. Previously, emission in the G20 recorded a decrease due to government regulation to overcome the Covid-19 outbreak. Although 14 G20 states have proposed net zero targets which covers around 61 percent of GHG emissions in the world, it is still not aligning with the 1.5 degree Celsius pathway. Climate Transparency Report 2021 finds that some countries such as Argentina, China, India, and Indonesia are projected to exceed their 2019 emissions level. As the window of opportunity to comply with the Paris Agreement is getting narrow, the G20 countries need to raise their climate ambition higher and to move together fighting the climate crisis.

The Climate Transparency Report, an annual report reviewing the climate ambition and policy of the G20 countries, stating several key findings for the 2021 report that was launched on October 14, 2021. They are:

  • Raised ambitions are not complying with the Paris Agreement yet

In the year of 2021, 14 G20 countries are updating their climate ambition and proposing a net-zero target. 13 updated NDC were submitted to UNFCCC and 6 of those countries i.e Argentina, Canada, EU (including France, Germany and Italy), South Africa, the UK and The US increased their NDC target, and that is good news. Unfortunately, all of them are not enough yet to comply with the 1.5 degree plan. By following the current ambition the global temperature will still rise up to 2.4 degrees. A more holistic and communal effort is definitely needed to keep the global temperature in the 1.5 degrees level.

“If the G20 were to align its targets and policies with one and a half degree pathways and implement those policies,  the global emissions gap of around 23 gigatons can be reduced significantly,” said  Justine Holmes, Solutions For Our Climate

  • Fossil fuel subsidy is still remaining

During the economic recovery, most of the G20 countries are injecting subsidies for the fossil fuel sector. In fact, the amount of fossil fuel subsidies are way bigger than the green recovery package prepared by the G20 governments. From January 2020 to August 2021 the G20 committed USD 298 billion to subsidise the fossil fuel industry. USD 248 billion of the USD 298 billion has gone without the ‘green pact’ attached. Meaning the fossil fuel industry has no obligation to for instance lowering their emissions, or other deals to consider the environment or climate change situation.

  • Emission is rebounding

As the economic activity is restarting, emission in the G20 country is rebounding again. Total emissions in 2020 were decreased up to 6% and it is projected to rise 4% this year. Countries like Argentina, China, India, and Indonesia are even projected to exceed the 2019 emissions level. This is actually predicted, that the decreased emissions in 2020 are closely related to the social activity restriction during the pandemic outbreak.

  • It is urgent to phase out coal power plant

Coal-fired power plants are known for their intense carbon emissions. As of 2020, China (163 GW), India (21 GW), Indonesia (18 GW), and Turkey (12 GW) still have coal power plants on the pipeline. All G20 members will need to phase out coal between 2030 – 2040 to limit global average temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Fabby Tumiwa, Executive Director of IESR, during his presentation explained that currently Indonesia is still dominated by coal in its energy mix. In October, the Indonesian government issued a new RUPTL which accommodates more renewables share rather than thermal power plan, plus PLN plan to decommission the supercritical coal power plant starting from 2030.

“Recently we are also discussing the possibility to do an early coal moratorium before 2025 but it’s still the plan, not yet settled and we still provide subsidies on fossil fuel. Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies will help to expedite the energy transitions,” he concluded.

Emissions are rising across the G20, again – warns a report

Emissions are rising across the G20, again – warns a report

Despite net zero commitments and updated NDCs, the G20’s climate action is leaving the world far from meeting the 1.5°C global warming limit

Jakarta, 15 Oktober 2021-After a short period of decline, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are rebounding across the G20, with Argentina, China, India and Indonesia projected to exceed their 2019 emissions levels. This is one of the key findings of the Climate Transparency Report – the world’s most comprehensive annual stocktake and comparison of G20 climate action.


In 2020, energy-related CO2 emissions plunged by 6% across the G20. In 2021, however, they are projected to rebound by 4%. “Rebounding emissions across the G20, the group responsible for 75% of global GHG emissions, shows that deep and fast cuts in emissions are now urgently needed to achieve net zero announcements,” says Gahee Han from the South Korean organisation Solutions For Our Climate, one of the lead authors of the report.


The report also notes some positive developments, such as the growth of solar and wind power among G20 members, with new records of installed capacities in 2020. The share of renewables in energy supply is projected to grow from 10% in 2020 to 12% in 2021. And in the power sector (energy used to make electricity and heat), renewables increased by 20% between 2015 and 2020, and are projected to become nearly 30% of the G20’s power mix in 2021. At the same time, though, experts note that apart from the UK, G20 members have neither short- nor long-term strategies in place for achieving 100% renewables in the power sector by 2050.


In spite of these positive changes, dependence on fossil fuels is not going down. On the contrary, the consumption of coal is projected to rise by nearly 5% in 2021, while the consumption of gas has increased by 12% across the G20 from 2015-2020. The report finds that the growth in coal is mainly concentrated in China – the largest global producer and consumer of coal – followed by the US and India.


At the same time, recent announcements signal that most G20 governments are aware of the need for a transition to low-carbon economies. Net zero targets should be reached by latest 2050 to limit global warming to 1.5°C, something that according to the Climate Transparency Report, has been acknowledged by the majority of G20 governments. By August 2021, 14 G20 members had already committed to net zero targets covering almost 61% of global GHG emissions.


As stated in the Paris Agreement, each Party is expected to submit a Nationally Determined Contribution – a climate plan that lays out targets, policies and measures that each government aims to implement. By September 2021, 13 G20 members (including France, Germany and Italy under the EU’s NDC) had officially submitted NDC updates, with six setting more ambitious 2030 targets. Yet, even if fully implemented, current targets assessed by April 2021 would still lead to warming of 2.4°C by the end of the century, experts caution. “G20 governments need to come to the table with more ambitious national emission reductions targets. The numbers in this report confirm we can’t move the dial without them – they know it, we know it – the ball is firmly in their court ahead of COP26,” says Kim Coetzee from Climate Analytics, who coordinated the overall analysis.


Key selected figures from the report:


    • Due to governments’ responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, energy-related CO2 emissions declined by 6% in 2020. However, in 2021, CO2 emissions are projected to rebound by 4% across the G20, with Argentina, China, India and Indonesia projected to exceed their 2019 emissions levels.
    • The G20’s share of renewables increased from 9% in 2019 to 10% in 2020 in Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES), and this trend is projected to continue, rising to 12% in 2021.
    • Between 2015 and 2020, the share of renewables in the G20’s power mix increased by 20%, reaching 28.6% of the G20’s power generation in 2020 and is projected to reach 29.5% in 2021.
  • From 2015 to 2020, the carbon intensity of the energy sector has decreased by 4%

across the G20.

  • Coal consumption is projected to rise by almost 5% in 2021, with this growth driven by China (accounting for 61% of the growth), the USA (18%) and India (17%).
  • The USA (4.9 tCO2/capita) and Australia (4.1 tCO2/capita) have the highest building emissions per capita in the G20 (average is 1.4 tCO2/capita), reflecting the high share of fossil fuels, especially natural gas and oil, used for heat generation.
  • Between 1999 and 2018 there have been nearly 500,000 fatalities and close to USD 3.5 trillion of economic costs due to climate impacts worldwide, with China, India, Japan, Germany, and the USA being hit particularly hard in 2018.
  • Across the G20, the current average market share of electric vehicles (EVs) in new car sales remains low at 3.2% (excluding the EU), with Germany, France, and the UK having the highest shares of EVs.
  • Between 2018 and 2019, G20 members provided USD 50.7 billion/year of public finance for fossil fuels. The highest providers of public finance were Japan (USD 10.3 billion/year), China (just over USD 8 billion/year), and South Korea (just under USD 8 billion/year).


Most G20 members also missed opportunities related to leverage COVID-19 recovery packages to promote climate mitigation goals. Only USD 300 billion of the total USD 1.8 trillion in recovery spending went to the much-heralded “green” recovery whilst fossil fuels continue to be subsidised. “It is extremely disappointing that a decade has passed since the commitment to rationalise and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies was made, but G20 members are still pumping billions of US dollars into dirty fuels, which are causing climate change,” says Enrique Maurtua Konstantinidis from Fundación Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (FARN) in Argentina. In 2019, G20 members, excluding Saudi Arabia, provided at least USD 152 billion in subsidies for the production and consumption of coal, oil, and gas.


Effective carbon pricing schemes could encourage the transition to a low-carbon economy, according to the authors of the report. However, only 13 G20 members have in place some form of explicit national carbon pricing scheme. Brazil, Indonesia, Russia and Turkey are currently considering introducing such a scheme.


The Climate Transparency Report was developed by 16 research organisations and NGOs from 14 G20 members and compares the adaptation, mitigation, and finance related efforts of the G20; analyses recent policy developments; and identifies climate opportunities that G20 governments can seize. This is the 7th edition of the annual review of G20 climate action.


About Climate Transparency:

Climate Transparency is a global partnership of 16 think tanks and NGOs that brings together experts from the majority of G20 countries. Our mission is to encourage ambitious climate action in the G20 countries: we inform policy makers and stimulate national debate.

Climate Transparency Report 2021 Launch and Discussion: Raising Climate Ambition to Achieve Climate Justice and Green Economic Growth in Post Pandemic

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In its effort to comply with the Paris Agreement, Indonesia has updated its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) along with Long Term Strategy for Low Carbon and Climate Resilience 2050 (LTS-LCCR) to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in July 2021. So as to commit to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission to 29% by 2030 below BAU unconditionally and 41% conditionally, Indonesia should accelerate the response to tackle climate change.

Climate change has increased the frequency of extreme weather which leads to severe natural disasters, especially hydrometeorology-related disasters. Greater temperature also changes the pattern of the dry and rainy season period. Severe drought has happened in some places where people suffer from food and water scarcity. This issue affects their daily needs and economic activities especially for people who work in the agricultural sector. The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) reported in 2021 there were almost 2000 disaster incidents. The massive number of flood events leads to the top disaster in Indonesia due to the high intensity of rain. Around 4 million people are suffering from disasters while 500 thousand people are evacuated from their homes.

Most of Asian countries have high vulnerability from climate change risks especially Indonesia as an archipelagic, coastal and tropical country. Furthermore, science continues to show that when the impacts of climate change accelerate, extreme weather events are taking a major toll in developing countries, particularly in Asia, as a home to some of the world’s largest youth populations. Not only degrading the quality of nature, but climate change is leading to loss of life, property and livelihood. Other than that, women, people with disabilities, and children are among the endangered groups impacted by the climate risks.

Indonesia’s commitment in mitigating climate change has been translated by the National Development Agency (Bappenas) through the Indonesia Climate Resilience Development Policy 2020-2045, in National Medium-Term Plan (RPJMN), and the roadmap of climate adaptation as a response to fight for the global threat of climate change.  As the impacts of climate change become accumulated, it can then create catastrophe for the world in the future. The following COP26 Summit in November in Glasgow brings the right moment for Indonesia as a middle income country to raise climate ambition and accelerate energy transition so as to prevent the worsening of climate change impacts.

In strengthening the transparency framework of global adaptation and mitigation actions, Climate Transparency produces an annual Climate Transparency Report. This report provides emission assessment and projections of G20 climate adaptation, mitigation, and financial mobilization to support these actions. Additionally, the report presents the analysis of COVID-19 responses, stimulus measures, and recommendations for a green recovery that align with the Paris Agreement. The Climate Transparency Report 2021 will be launched globally on October 14, 2021. As a partner of Climate Transparency in Indonesia, IESR will launch the Climate Transparency Report 2021 and the Indonesia Country Profile in a one-day virtual event to be held on 28 October 2021.

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Road to COP 26: Climate change and the role of the public actors to save the earth

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Indonesia ratified the Paris Agreement on April 22, 2016 through Law No. 16 of 2016 and developed a plan to reduce emissions in the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC). Indonesia has pledged to reduce its emissions by 29% on its own and by 41% with international support by 2030. Indonesia has also committed to tackling climate change and preventing temperature rises below 2°C at the global average or 1.5° C above pre-industrial levels. In addition, in order to meet the temperature target set out in the Paris Agreement, all countries in the world are expected to achieve net zero emissions by 2050, including Indonesia.

In updating the NDC and the 2050 LTS-LCCR (Long-term Strategy on Low Carbon and Climate Resilience) document, Indonesia stated that it would only reach net zero emissions in 2060. This shows that Indonesia will be 10 years behind from the carbon neutral target set by the Paris Agreement. Based on the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (AR-6), the opportunity to stabilize the climate is becoming increasingly narrow. This can be seen from several impacts of the climate crisis that often occur. The increase in extreme weather events affects the frequency and intensity of hydrometeorological disasters, such as floods, landslides, droughts, and tropical cyclones. As a result, a number of infrastructures were damaged and caused losses both physically and financially. Based on the results of a Bappenas study, in 2023 economic losses from the impacts of climate change will reach 112.2 trillion rupiah.

In addition, the climate risk begins to create inequality where developed countries as the largest emission contributors experience less impact than developing countries that produce lower emissions. Rising sea levels threaten the livelihoods of those who depend on coastal areas. Drought can lead to scarcity of food supplies and difficulty in finding water sources which results in the emergence of social conflicts. Women, children, the elderly and the disabled are vulnerable groups who will experience the impact of the climate crisis due to their lack of access to education, finance and information. There is an understanding that the issue of climate change is a concept of the ‘western world’ and is only the consumption of elite organizations driven by environmental activists can hinder the acceleration of climate change mitigation actions.

Encouraging the government to increase climate ambitions requires efforts from the entire community to increase mitigation actions from the government and increase self-awareness from the community side so as to create a climate-resilient society. In addition, open access to information is also important for public participation, especially community leaders and group leaders, in seeing concrete steps to encourage more serious ambitions from the Indonesian government.